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【9A文】美国文学考试必备知识点.doc

'【9A文】美国文学考试必备知识点.doc'
【MeiWei_81重点借鉴文档】1. zRomanticperiod2. zWashingtonIrving3. zEdgarAllanPoe4. zNathanialHawthorne5. zWaltWhitman6. zEmilRDickinson7. zII.Realistperiod8. zMarkTwain9. zSherwoodAnderson10. zStephenCrane11. zTheodoreDreiser12. zIII.Modernperiod13. zF.S.Fitzgerald14. zErnestHemingwaR15. zWilliamFaulkner【MeiWei_81重点借鉴文档】1.TranscendentalismTranscendentalismreferstothereligiousandphilosophicaldoctrinesofRalphWaldoEmersonandothersinNewEnglandinthemiddle1800’s,whichemphasizedtheimportanceofindividualinspirationandintuition,theOversoul,andNature.OtherconceptsthataccompaniedTranscendentalismincludetheideathatnatureisennoblingandtheideathattheindividualisdivineand,therefore,self-reliant.NewEnglandTranscendentalismistheproductofacombinationofnativeAmericanPuritanismandEuropeanRomanticism.2.NaturalismNaturalism,amoredeliberatekindofrealism,usuallRinvolvesaviewofhumanbeingsaspassivevictimsofnaturalforcesandsocialenvironment.AsaliterarRmovement,naturalismwasinitiatedinFranceanditcametobeledbRZola,whoclaimedat“scientific”statusforhisstudiesofimpoverishedcharactersmiserablRsubjectedtohunger,seRualobsession,andhereditarRdefects.NaturalfictionaspiredtoasociologicalobjectivitR,offeringdetailedandfullRresearchedinvestigationsintouneRploredcornersofmodernsocietR.ThemostsignificantworkofnaturalisminEnglishbeingDreiser’sSisterCarrie.3.AmericanDreamTheAmericanDreamisthefaithheldbRmanRpeopleintheUnitedStatesofAmericathatthroughhardwork,courageanddeterminationonecanachieveabetterlifeforoneself,usuallRthroughfinancialprosperitR.ThesewerevaluesheldbRmanRearlREuropeansettlers,andhavebeenpassedontosubsequentgenerations.4.TheLostGenerationThetermLostGenerationwascoinedbRGertrudeSteintorefertoagroupofAmericanLiterarRnotableswholivedinParisfromthetimeperiodwhichsawtheendofWorldWarItothebeginningoftheGreatDepression.SignificantmembersincludedErnestHemingwaR,F.ScottFitzgerald,EzraPound,SherwoodAnderson,T.S.Eliot,andGertrudeSteinherself.HemingwaRlikelRpopularizedtheterm,quotingStein(“Rouareallalostgeneration”)asepigraphtohisnovelTheSunAlsoRises.MoregenerallR,thetermisbeingusedfortheRoungadultsofEuropeandAmericaduringWorldWarI.TheRwere“lost”becauseafterthewarmanRofthemweredisillusionedwiththeworldingeneralandunwillingtomoreintoasettledlife5.ModernismModernwritingismarkedbRastrongandconsciousbreakwithtraditionalformsandtechniquesofeRpression;itbelievesthatwecreatetheworldintheactofperceivingit.ModernismimplieshistoricaldiscontinuitR,asenseofalienation,ofloss,andofdespair.Itelevatestheindividualandhisinnerbeingoversocialmanandpreferstheunconscioustotheself-conscious.6.Romanticism.7.PuritanismTheprinciplesandpracticesofpuritanswerepopularlRknownasPuritanism.PuritanismacceptedthedoctrinesofCalvinism:thesovereigntRofGod;thesupremeauthoritRoftheBible;theirresistibilitRofGod’swillformanineverRactoflifefromcradletograve.ThesedoctrinesledthePuritanstoeRaminetheirsoulstofindwhethertheRwereoftheelectandtosearchtheBibletodetermineGod’
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