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Expressed Sequence Tags of Trichinella spiralis Muscle

'Expressed Sequence Tags of Trichinella spiralis Muscle'
INTRODUCTION Genus Trichinella, which consists of several species, is found to infect mammals, birds, and reptiles. These nematodes alter- nate enteric and skeletal muscle stages during their life cycle. T. spiralis is a relatively small nematode, adult female being 1.4-4.0 mm, adult male 1.4-1.8 mm, and muscle stage larvae approxi- mately 1 mm long [1,2]. The life cycle of this nematode begins with the enteral phase of infection, when a person or an animal eats contaminated meat containing first-stage muscle larvae. Digestive juices from the stomach (pepsin and hydrochloric acid) dissolve the capsule-like cyst and release the larvae, penetrating into epithelial cells of the small intestine [3]. Shortly thereafter, the larvae molt 4 times (10 through 28 hr post-oral ingestion [POI]), and mature into adults that mate (30-34 hr POI). Female worms can produce 500-1,500 newborn larvae (immature L1) during a lifespan, prior to expulsion by the host immune system. The migratory phase of infection begins when these newborn larvae are passed into tissues, enter the lymphatic system, and then enter the general circulation at the thoracic duct. These lar- vaeare distributed widely throughout tissues by circulation, and eventually make their way through blood capillaries into mus- cle fibers, so initiating the muscle phase of infection. Once in muscle fibers, they encyst, undergo development, become infec- tivewithin 15 days, and remain for months to years. Trichinella spiralis evidences several biological differences that include host specificity, phenotypic characteristics induced in infected host cells, and interactions with the host immune system. Additionally, each of these parasites must migrate extracellularly through the tissues of the host in order to infect the various host cells they inhabit [4]. The mechanisms involved in this migra- tion remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, the role of the para- site in regulating changes in these host cells remains unknown. A number of technical obstacles exist which impede progress in many of these issues, including a paucity of information regard- ingthe genes that comprise Trichinellaspp [5,6]. Reverse-genetic and/or post-genomic approaches predicated on nucleotide sequence information are vital for such investiga- tions [7,8]. However, the availability of sequence information required for such approaches remains insufficient. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis enables the collection of nucleotide sequence information regarding protein-coding regions in a rapid and efficient manner, and should be helpful in detecting and identifying genes in genomes. It also provides gene expression information for a particular type of cultivation or for a particu- lar growth phase. For these reasons, EST analysis is conducted as a component of many genome projects [9-11]. In addition to the genes that are candidates for pathogenic factors, many novel genes for stage-specific or cell cycle regulation, in addition to a
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ExpressedSequenceTagsofTrichinellaspiralisMuscle
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本文标题:Expressed Sequence Tags of Trichinella spiralis Muscle
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