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understanding language teaching

'understanding language teaching'
Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 UNDERSTANDING LANGUAGE TEACHING From Method to Postmethod Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 ESL What we haven’t is the wide world. —Auvaiyaar (Circa 100 BC-250 AD) Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 This page intentionally left blank Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 Preface: The Pattern Which Connectsxiii PART ONELANGUAGE, LEARNING, AND TEACHING 1Language: Concepts and Precepts3 2Learning: Factors and Processes25 3Teaching: Input and Interaction55 PART TWOLANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS 4Constituents and Categories of Methods83 5Language-Centered Methods97 6Learner-Centered Methods114 7Learning-Centered Methods134 PART THREEPOSTMETHOD PERSPECTIVES 8Postmethod Condition161 9Postmethod Pedagogy185 10Postmethod Predicament215 Postscript: The Pattern Which Comforts224 References227 Author Index245 Subject Index251 Brief Contents vii Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 This page intentionally left blank Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 Preface: The Pattern Which Connectsxiii PART ONELANGUAGE, LEARNING, AND TEACHING 1Language: Concepts and Precepts3 1. Introduction3 1.1. Theoretical Concepts3 1.1.1. Language as System4 1.1.2. Language as Discourse7 1.1.3. Language as Ideology11 1.2. Pedagogic Precepts16 1.2.1. Components of Competence16 1.2.2. Areas of Knowledge/Ability21 1.3. Conclusion24 2Learning: Factors and Processes25 2. Introduction25 2.1. Input26 2.2. Intake27 2.3. Intake Factors29 2.3.1. Individual Factors31 2.3.2. Negotiation Factors34 2.3.3. Tactical Factors36 2.3.4. Affective Factors38 2.3.5. Knowledge Factors41 Contents ix Downloaded by [University of Edinburgh] at 07:03 06 February 2013 2.3.6. Environmental Factors42 2.4. Intake Processes45 2.4.1. Inferencing45 2.4.2. Structuring46 2.4.3. Restructuring47 2.5. Output48 2.6. An Interactive Framework of Intake Processes49 2.7. Conclusion53 3Teaching: Input and Interaction55 3. Introduction55 3.1. Input Modifications57 3.1.1. Form-Based Input Modifications58 3.1.2. Meaning-Based Input Modifications60 3.1.3. Form- and Meaning-Based Input Modifications62 3.2. Interactional Activities65 3.2.1. Interaction as a Textual Activity66 3.2.2. Interaction as an Interpersonal Activity70 3.2.3. Interaction as an Ideational Activity71 3.3. Content Specifications75 3.3.1. Syllabus Characteristics75 3.3.2. Syllabus Classifications79 3.4. Conclusion80 PART TWOLANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS 4Constituents and Categories of Methods83 4. Introduction83 4.1. Constituents of Language Teaching Methods83 4.1.1. Method and Methodology83 4.1.2. Approach, Method, and Technique84 4.1.3. Approach, Design, and Procedure86 4.1.4. Principles and Procedures87 4.2. Categories of Language Teaching Methods90 4.2.1. Language-Centered Methods90 4.2.2. Learner-Centered Methods91 4.2.3. Learning-Centered Methods91 4.3. Des
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