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Use of styrene butadiene rubber industrial waste devulcanized by microwave

'Use of styrene butadiene rubber industrial waste devulcanized by microwave'
Use of styrene butadiene rubber industrial waste devulcanized by microwave in rubber composites for automotive application A. Zanchet a, L.N. Carlia,b, M. Giovanelaa, R.N. Brandalisea, J.S. Crespoa,? aCentro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130, Caxias do Sul 95070-560, RS, Brazil bInstituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS, Brazil a r t i c l ei n f o Article history: Received 30 January 2012 Accepted 10 March 2012 Available online 19 March 2012 Keywords: Elastomers and rubber Recycling Mechanical a b s t r a c t The aim of this work was to develop and characterize styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) composites fi lled with SBR industrial scraps (SBR-r) devulcanized by microwave. The SBR-r was ground under ambient con- ditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 1, 2 and 3 min. The composites were developed by the incorporation of 80 phr (parts per hundred of rubber) of the devulcanized SBR-r into the rubber matrix and subsequent revulcanization. The rheometric and physical–mechanical properties (shore A hardness, compression set, tensile and tear strength) were determined. The samples were submitted to two types of accelerated aging processes, in an air oven (thermo-oxidation) and an artifi cial weathering test in a UV chamber (photo-oxidation). The results were compared with a control sample submitted to the same conditions. For further application in automotive profi les, the set of results indicated that the best perfor- mance was achieved by the composite containing SBR-r devulcanized for 2 min in a microwave. For this composite, the changes in the chemical characteristics after aging were evaluated with cross-link density and Attenuated Total Refl ectance–Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR) analyses. The results revealed that the aging mechanism was dependent on the presence of SBR-r and on the time of aging. The cross-link density analysis confi rmed the occurrence of cross-link scissioning at shorter aging timesand theformation of additional cross-linking inthepostcure process. The ATR–FTIRresults indicated an oxidative process occurring on the surface of the composites for both aging processes. Moreover, arti- fi cial weathering presented a more pronounced change in the chemical structure of the samples. ? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Because of the large volumes of scraps associated with rubber production, the old practice of landfi lling has been unable to keep up with production because of rising land costs, environmental concerns and fi re risks occurring at these site [1,2]. Considering that vulcanized rubber is not easily biodegradable, recycling meth- ods must be proposed in order to solve this environmental prob- lem and recover a material with high commercial value [1,3]. The cross-linking of the polymer main chains during the vulcanization process tur
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Useofstyrenebutadienerubberindustrialwastedevulcanizedbymicrowave
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