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Wiley - Reliability Of Computer Systems And Networks - Fault Tolerance_ Analysis And Design

'Wiley - Reliability Of Computer Systems And Networks - Fault Tolerance_ Analysis And Design'
Reliability of Computer Systems and Networks: Fault Tolerance, Analysis, and Design Martin L. Shooman Copyright ?2002John Wiley 0-471-22460-X (Electronic) RELIABILITY OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS RELIABILITY OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS Fault Tolerance, Analysis, and Design MARTIN L. SHOOMAN Polytechnic University and Martin L. Shooman in the transportation, health, and entertainment industries; in institu- tions of education and government; in telephone systems; and in both fossil and nuclear power plants. Rapid developments in microelectronics have led to very complex designs; for example, a luxury automobile may have30–40micropro- cessors connected by a local area network! Such designs must be made using fault-tolerant techniques to provide signifi cant software and hardware reliabil- ity, availability, and safety. xxPREFACE Computer networks are currently of great interest, and their successful oper- ation requires a high degree of reliability and availability. This reliability is achieved by means of multiple connecting paths among locations within a net- work so that when one path fails, transmission is successfully rerouted. Thus the network topology provides a complex structure of redundant paths that, in turn, provide fault tolerance, and these principles also apply to power distri- bution, telephone and water systems, and other networks. Fault-tolerant computing is a generic term describing redundant design tech- niques with duplicate components or repeated computations enabling uninter- rupted (tolerant) operation in response to component failure (faults). Some- times, system disasters are caused by neglecting the principles of redundancy and failure independence, which are obvious in retrospect. After the September 11th,2001, attack on the World Trade Center, it was revealed that although one company had maintained its primary system database in one of the twin tow- ers, it wisely had kept its backup copies at its Denver, Colorado offi ce. Another company had also maintained its primary system database in one tower but, unfortunately, kept its backup copies in the other tower. COVERAGE Much has been written on the subject of reliability and availability since its development in the early1950s. Fault-tolerant computing began between 1965and1970, probably with the highly reliable and widely available AT thus a chapter is devoted to software reliability models. Also, the use of software redundancy in the BFS is analyzed. Computer networks are fundamental to communications systems, and local area networks connect a wide range of digital systems. Therefore, the principles of reliability and availability analysis for computer networks are developed, culminating in an introduction to network design principles. The concluding chapter considers a large system with multiple possibilities for improving reli- ability by adding parallel or standby subsystems. Simple apportionment and optimization techniques are developed for designing the
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