科技英语写作-Abstrac1t

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'科技英语写作-Abstrac1t'
----- --------by Zh ang Chen an d Li YapengCONTENTS uWhat is the abstract uWhy do we need to write a abstract uHow to write a good abstract uProblems that may be encountered in writing an abstract What is the abstract Definition of International Standardization Organization (ISO)214-76: an abbreviated, accurate representation of the contents of a document without added interpretation or criticism.Generally speaking:Abstract is a brief statement about the paper. It tells us the main idea of the whole paper.A good abstract should be complete,brief and easy to be understood. What is the abstractElements of structure in an abstract Purpose Implications Statement Methodology Results and (topic and and and Conclusionsbackground) Data Findings why do we need to write an abstractWe always read a paper in this order: Reading Reading Reading the title the abstract the body A good abstract makes people understand the main idea of the paper. Of course, a nice abstract can raise people’s interests in reading the whole paper. why do we need to write an abstractuSome data libraries only provide the abstract of papers, so writing a brief and independent abstract is necessary. By reading your abstract, people can get your idea instantly. Abstract is written after you finish the whole research, to some degree, it’s a summary of your work.uWhen you submit a paper, other parts in Chinese, however, English abstract is necessary.How to write a good abstract From the perspective of the content From the perspective of the structureFrom the perspective of the content? Title:Development of the unpowered diving and floating prediction system for deep manned submersible "JIAOLONG“? Abstract:In this 5,000m depth class sea trials test of the JIAOLONG deep manned submer- sible,dive No.44 has realized the fully unpowered ? diving and floating condition and this set of test data provide a valuable source for model improve- ment.In this paper,this set of test data is analysed in detail and the previous analytical model is im- proved through the introduction of a variable vo- lume compressed rate for the deep manned sub- mersible during the whole process of diving and floating.A computer software is developed for the prediction of the unpowered diving and floating movement.This could lay a good foundation for the 7 000m sea trials planned in 2012 and for the future applications. The information in an Abstract is condensed because of the summarizing nature. There is no spare information in an abstract.uOne or two sentences to introduce the topic and background of your research. Do a purpose statement (What you want to research or settle down. )uThe theoretical methods or important tools you used for the research(analytical methods, software, Test methods…)uIntroduce the results or findings in your research in brief words. What a new theory revealed in your paper.uThe conclusions and implications of your research paper.? To write a good abstract ,we have to follow the conventions set by more experienced people in the field .We can safely assume that if a research paper is accepted by an international journal, then its abstract can be emulated by people learning to write this kind of text. The two main features of an abstract are its discourse structure and the language used for condensing the information. We have seen that the abstract has a number of structural elements, also information is condensed in nominal groups with special types of verbs. The secret of a successful abstract is in giving the most important information in the least number of words in a coherent structure. This can be achieved by reading good abstracts and then emulating t h e m w h e n y o u n e e d t o w r i t e o n e . 2 TypesInformative abstracts: In detail, experimentally, technically, more information, long.Indicative abstracts: Summarize, main idea, theoretically, short. 3 Tenses The present The past tense: tense: background process/result /description The present perfect tense: developing/effe ct3 Characteristics Accurate: Independent: express your of the body idea correctly Brief:
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