交际法在初中英语口语教学中的应用研究

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1、nnn内容提要交际教学法的核心思想是将语言作为一种工具来教授,其主要目的在于使学生能运用所学语言成功地进行交流,获取信息。本文在交际法相关理论的指导下,旨在探寻提高中学生英语口语能力的有效途径,并探讨教师成功执行英语口语教学任务的方法。为此,作者提出了三个研究问题:(1)交际法对初中英语口语教学能否起到积极作用?(2)在初中英语口语课堂上,哪一类交际活动更受学生欢迎?(3)提高学生的英语口语能力最有效的策略有哪些?为解决这三个问题,作者主要采用了问卷和访问的研究方法。通过研究,得出以下结论:首先,交际法指导下的教学方法能够对初中学生英语口语学习产生积极的效果。同时,学生对这类方法也比较感兴趣。其次,初中口语教学的课程设计对于提高学生的英语口语能力至关重要。一般来

2、说,学生更欢迎需要较多互动的课堂活动环节,如猜谜游戏和角色扮演。最后,对于交际法理论指导下的初中英语口语教学,作者提出了一些可行的策略,包括应用真实材料、增加师生之间互动、在学生中创造互动氛围以及推广其它课外活动。基于以上结论,本文提出了一些相关教学建议。教师在使用交际教学法的过程中,应当着重考虑初中英语学习者的特点和中国特有的教育环境因素,才能达到更好的教学效果。关键词:交际法,英语口语教学,初中nSynopsisCommunicativeApproach(CA)isanapproachtoforeignorsecondlanguageteachingwhichstressescommunicativecompetenceasthegoaloflanguagele

3、arning.ThemainpurposeofstudyingCAasanapproachistobuildupteachersandstudents’communicativeawarenessandenhancetheircommunicativecompetenceespeciallylinguisticcompetence.Inthepresentthesis,theauthorplanstoexploreeffectivemethodstoimprovestudents’oralabilityinjuniorhighschool.Basedonthepreviousstudies,theauthorintendstoapplyCAtospokenEnglis

4、hteachingclasses.Therearemainlythreeresearchquestionstobeaddressedintheresearch:(1)IsCAeffectiveinspokenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschool?(2)Whichofthemethodsusedinclassdothestudentsprefer?(3)Whatareeffectivestrategiestoimprovethestudents’oralabilitythroughCAinjuniorhighschool?Thefollowingsarethemajorfindingsofthethesis:(1)theCA-oriente

5、dteachingmethodsdohavepositiveeffectsonstudents’spokenabilityinjuniorhighschool,andthestudentswarmlywelcomethiskindofteachingmethods;(2)thestudentsinjuniorhighschoolprefertheactivitieswhichneedmoreinteractions,eitherbetweenstudentsandteacher(guessinggamessometimes),oramongpeers(role-playing).Thedesignofclassroomactivitiesisquitevitaltot

6、heeffectoforalproficiencyimprovement;(3)thereareseveralsuggestionsthatareapplicableinCA-orientedspeakingclass—introducingauthenticmaterialintoclass,enhancinginteractionsbetweenteacherandstudents,creatinganinteractiveenvironmentamongpeersandpromotingotheractivitiesoutsidetheclassroom.KeyWords:CommunicativeApproach,spokenEnglishteaching,j

7、uniorhighschoolnContentsChapter1Introduction................................................................................11.1ResearchBackground.....................................................................11.2ObjectivesandSignificanceoftheThesis......................................31.3OrganizationoftheStudy..................

8、.............................................4Chapter2LiteratureReview.......................................................................62.1TheTheoreticalFramework............................................................62.1.1CommunicativeCompetence.................................................62.1.2DevelopedfromtheFunctional

9、andSocialLinguisticPointofView..................................................................................82.2ABriefReviewofCA...................................................................112.2.1DefinitionsofCA................................................................112.2.2TheDevelopmentofCA............................

10、..........................132.2.3MajorFeaturesofCA..........................................................232.2.4MajorFormsofCA.............................................................242.3RelatedStudiesatHome...............................................................27Chapter3Methodology.......................................

11、.....................................303.1TheResearchQuestions................................................................303.2ParticipantsandInstruments.........................................................303.3DataCollectionandAnalysis........................................................31Chapter4ResultsandDiscussion........

12、.....................................................32In4.1TheAnalysisoftheQuestionnaire................................................334.2GeneralDescriptionofCAinJuniorSchool................................334.2.1TheFrequentUseofCAinOralEnglishClass...................344.2.2ThePreferenceofCertainMethodsinOralEnglishClass..344.2.3Th

13、eEffectiveStrategiestoImproveStudents’OralAbilitythroughCA..........................................................................354.3DetailedAnalysisofCAinJuniorSchool....................................404.3.1CommunicativeActivitiesAdoptedinJuniorSchool..........404.3.2MajorFormsofCommunicativeActivitiesUsedinJuniorSchool..........

14、........................................................................40Chapter5Conclusion................................................................................435.1MajorFindingsoftheResearch....................................................435.2LimitationsofthePresentThesis.................................................

15、445.3RecommendationsforFutureResearches....................................44References.................................................................................................46Appendix...................................................................................................50Acknowledgements...........................

16、........................................................51Abstract(Chinese).......................................................................................1Abstract(English)........................................................................................4IInChapter1Introduction1.1ResearchBackgroundSincethereformandopening

17、-uppoliciesin1970s,Chinesepeopleareofferedmoreandmoreopportunitiestocommunicatewithpeoplefromallovertheworld.EspeciallyafterChina’sentryintoWTO,theneedofpeople’sinvolvementintheinternationalcommunicationhasbeenincreasedquitesubstantially.Englishisthemostwidelyusedlanguageandplaysabigroleinglobalcommunication.ChinesepeopleareusingmoreEng

18、lishthantheyusedto.TheultimategoalofforeignlanguageteachingofEnglishistocultivatetheEnglishlearners’communicativecompetenceinthereal-lifesituation.ItisnecessaryfortheEnglishlanguageteachinginChinatofocusonthepromotionofEnglishcommunicativeability,especiallyinEnglishspeakingproficiency.Reading,writing,listeningandspeakingusuallyarethefou

19、rimportantskillsoftheJuniorHighSchoolEnglishteaching.Mostoftheclassroomactivitiesaredesignedforadvancingtheselanguageskills.Nunan(1992)suggests“Successismeasuredintermsoftheabilitytocarryoutaconversationinthe(target)language.”Thefundamentalgoalofforeignlanguageteachingshouldbetheacquisitionoforalcompetence,theabilitytobeunderstood.Inthe

20、lastdecades,Chineselanguageteachingmethodswereinfluencedbytheoverseatheories.Sofar,languagelearnersarestilltaughtbythetraditionalteachingmethodologywhichplacesemphasisongrammarandtranslation.Generally,afteratleastoneortwoyearsstudyingEnglishintheirprimaryschools,thelearnershavegainthebasicknowledgeofEnglish.Whenthelearnersenterjuniorhig

21、hschool,Englishlearningstillemphasizeson“rote”learningandaccumulationofEnglishknowledge,suchasthewordsspellingandthegrammaticalrulesandtheknowledgeofsentencestructure.ThetraditionallanguageteachingmethodisfoundinadequatetomeettheneedsofachievingtheultimategoallanguageteachingtopromotetheEnglishlearner’soralcommunicativeability.Therearem

22、anymajorproblemsexistinginourjuniorhighschoolstudents’Englishabilities1nincludedasfollows:Firstly,theEnglishclassisstillteacher-centered.Theleadoftheclassistheteacherwhodominatestheclassperiodsmosttogivelectureinthetraditionalteachingmethods,whichleaveslessopportunitiesforlearnerstoengageinparticipationinclassroomactivitiesforcommunica

23、tiveabilitytraining.TheknowledgeofEnglishlanguageistransmittedpassivelyfromtheteachertostudentswholistentotheteacherquietlyandjustwritedownnotes.Studentsalsotendtobesilentbecausetheyarenotself-confidentwiththeirvocabularycontentorafraidofmakingmistakesandlackofinterestwhichisnoteasilymotivatedinsuchalearningcontext.Secondly,theEnglishle

24、arningenvironmentisnotasreal-lifeaspossibleandthelearningsourcesandmaterialsarestillinadequate.Asmentionedabove,thetraditionalteacher-ledlangrageteachingmethodcannotofferstudentsanideallearningenvironmenttopracticetheirEnglishcommunicativeability.Inaddition,textbookshavealmostbeentheonlyresourcesforbothteachersandstudentsforquitealongti

25、mewhichcannotsatisfylearners’needbecausetheycannotfindtheusefullearningresourcesfreelyeventhoughtheyarethemainpartoflearningactivities.Thelastproblemisduethelackofeffectivelearningstrategiesfordevelopingstudent’sspeakingskills.Aftertheresearcherdidasurvey,itisnotdifficulttofindthemajorityofthelesssuccessfulstudents’lackofthestrategiesfo

26、rEnglishlearning.Thereforetheyseemtohaveacomparativelylowself-efficacyandhavenointrinsicmotivationintheirstudy.Theseproblemshavegainedtheincreasingattentionfromvariouscircles.Recently,thesubstantialreformandchangesinlanguageteachinghavebeenrequiredurgentlyinChina.Peoplefindthatthecommunicationisthecoreoflanguage.TheEnglishteachingfocuse

27、snolongeronthevocabularyandthemasteryofgrammaticalstructures,butonamorecomprehensivetrainingofcommunicativecompetence.“Ofalltheconceptsinlanguageteachingwhichhavebeenwidelyusedinrecentyears,theterms‘communication’or‘communicative’nodoubttopthelist.”(Stern1992:11)2n1.2ObjectivesandSignificanceoftheThesisTheobjectiveoftheJuniorHighSchool

28、Englishteachingistodevelopthelearners’Englishcommunicativecompetence.Teachersteachstudentstomasternotonlythegrammaticalknowledge,butalsohowtouseittocommunicate.BasedonthetheoriesofCommunicativeApproach(CA),spokenEnglishteachingisintheprimarypositioninEnglishteachingwhichisproposedbyZhangJianzhong(1999)that“Listeningandspeakingpreceding,

29、readingandwritingfollowing”isanimportantprincipleinCA.OurJuniorHighSchoolSpokenEnglishteachingwillconcentrateonthetacitknowledgeandabilitytouseit.TeachersshouldencourageeachstudenttospeakEnglish.Thecoreofcommunicativeapproachideaviewsthelanguageasacommunicativetooltoteach,tolearn,touse,nottoteachstudentsasetofgrammaticalrulesoroddvocabu

30、lariesasthefinalgoal.CommunicativeApproachoriginatedfromthemajorchangesinBritishlanguageteachingtraditionfromthebeginning1970sandwasintroducedintoChinainthepastthreedecades.GreateffortshavebeenmadeontestifytheeffectivenessofCAinlanguageteaching.Itisnowacceptedbymanyappliedlinguistsandclassroomteachersasthemosteffectiveapproachamongthose

31、ingeneraluse.ThemainpurposeofstudyingCAasanapproachistobuildupteachersandstudents’communicativeawarenessandenhancetheircommunicativecompetenceincludinglinguisticcompetence.Originally,asanapproach,CAdevelopedwiththeincreasingneedsofcommunicativecompetence.Inthepresentthesis,Iattempttoexploreeffectivemethodstoimprovestudents’oralabilityin

32、juniorhighschool.Basedonthepreviousstudies,theauthorintendstoapplyCAtospokenEnglishteachingclasses.Afteranalyzingrelativetheoriesandcharacteristicsofjuniorhighschoolstudents,theauthorcarriesoutasimpleexperimenttotestifysomeofherideas.ThisresearchisaimedatfindingtheimplicationsfortheEnglishteachersinJuniorHighSchoolonhowtofostertheoralab

33、ilityinstudentsandwhethertoimplementCAinfurtherspokenEnglishteaching.Throughtheexperimentandtheinterviewwiththeteacherafterit,itwillbeinferred3nthatwhetherCAiseffectivetotrainstudents’speakingproficiencyandtowhatdegree.Throughanalyzingthequestionnairesaccomplishedbythechosenstudents,itwillbedrawnthatwhetherthestudentsliketheapplication

34、ofcommunicationactivities,whatkindofcommunicativeactivitiestheypreferandwhethertheyliketoexperienceCAintheirfurtherEnglishstudy.Therearemainlythreeresearchquestionsthattheauthorintendstoexploreintheresearch:(1)IsCAeffectiveinspokenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschool?(2)Whichofthemethodsusedinclassdothestudentsprefer?(3)Whatareeffectivestr

35、ategiestoimprovethestudents’oralabilitythroughCAinjuniorhighschool?1.3OrganizationoftheStudyThethesisisdividedintofiveparts.Chapter1isanoverallintroductionofthewholethesis,includingresearchbackground,objectiveandsignificanceofthethesisinwhichtheauthorpointsoutthenecessityofteachingspokenEnglishinjuniorhighschools,andproblemsexistinginsp

36、okenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschool.Theorganizationofthethesisisalsoillustratedinthischapter.Chapter2istheliteraturereviewofrelatedtheories.Inthischapter,theauthorintroducestheoreticalbackgroundofspokenEnglishteaching,thedefinitionandhistoricaldevelopmentofCommunicativeApproach,majorcharacteristicsandformsofCommunicativeApproach.Theau

37、thoralsoreviewstherelatedstudiesathomeinthischapter.InChapter3,theauthordiscussesthemethodologyofthethesis.Firstlytheauthorliststhethreeresearchquestions.Andthen,thesubjectsandtheinstrumentsarebrieflyintroduced.Theprocedureoftheexperimentanddatacollectionisillustratedinthefollowingpart.Theresearchconsistsofanexperiment,aquestionnaireand

38、someinterviewswiththeteachersandstudents.Chapter4isdividedintothreeparts.4nFirstly,theresearcheranalyzesthedatacollectedfromthequestionnaire.ThesecondpartisthegeneraldescriptionofapplyingCAinjuniorhighschooloralclasses,inwhichthethreeresearchquestionsareaddressedonebyone.PartthreeisadetaileddiscussionabouttheproblemofemployingCAinjunio

39、rhighschooloralclasses,whichincludesthecommunicativeactivitiesadoptedinjuniorhighschoolandthemajorformsofcommunicativeactivitiesusedinjuniorhighschool.Chapter5istheconclusionofthethesiswhichincludesthemajorfindingsandlimitationofthethesis.Besides,theauthorgivesrecommendationsforfutureresearch.5nChapter2LiteratureReviewInthischapter,the

40、authorintroducesthetheoreticalbackgroundofspokenEnglishteaching:thedefinitions,historicaldevelopmentandcharacteristicsofCommunicativeApproach.2.1TheTheoreticalFramework2.1.1CommunicativeCompetenceTherehasbeenaworldwiderecognitionthatcommunicativeabilityshouldbetheultimategoaloflanguageteaching.Comparedwiththewidelyusedapproachesassituat

41、ionallanguageteachingortheaudio-lingualmethod,CommunicativeApproachexploresthisgoalmorethoroughlyandexplicitlythanbeforeandhasbeenseenthemostfrequentlyadoptedteachingapproachforthespokenEnglishclass.Thegoalofcommunicativelanguageteachingistodeveloplearners’communicativecompetence.IntalkingaboutCLT,onecannotavoidtalkingaboutcommunicative

42、competence,atermcoinedbyHymes(1972)inordertocontrastacommunicativeviewoflanguagewithChomsky"s(1965)theoryofcompetence.Chomsky’sviewofcompetencedealsprimarilywithabstractgrammaticalknowledge.ForChomsky,thefocusoflinguistictheorywastocharacterizetheabstractabilitiesspeakerspossesswhichenablethemtoproducegrammaticallycorrectsentencesi

43、nalanguage.“Linguistictheoryisconcernedprimarilywithanidealspeaker-listenerinacompletelyhomogenousspeechcommunity,whoknowsitslanguageperfectlyandisunaffected,bysuchgrammaticallyirrelevantconditionsasmemorylimitation,distractions,shiftsofattentionandinterest,anderrors(randomorcharacteristic)inapplyinghisknowledgeofthelanguageinactualperf

44、ormance.”(Chomsky,1965:3)Thecommunicativecompetenceisthemostgeneraltermforthecapabilitiesofaperson,whichisdependentonbothtacitknowledgeandabilityforuse.“Therefore,speakersofalanguagehavetohavemorethangrammaticalcompetenceinordertobeabletocommunicateeffectivelyinalanguage;theyalsoneedtoknowhowlanguage6nisusedbymembersofaspeechcommunityt

45、oaccomplishtheirpurposes.”(Hymes,1986:41)FirstlyusedbyHymes(1974),hechosetoadoptChomsky’snotionofcompetenceashisstartingpointandbuiltfromitabroaderframeworkforthedescriptionoflanguageuse.IncontrasttoChomskyclaimingjudgmentsofgrammaticallyandacceptabilitytothenativespeaker,Hymeslinkslinguistictheorytoamoregeneraltheoryofcommunicationandc

46、ulture.Itisacompetence“whentospeak,whennot,andastowhattotalkaboutwithwhom,when,where,inwhatmanner”(1872:277).Hebelieves(1972:281)thatastheyspeakorwrite,languageusersmakefourkindsofjudgments:(1)whether(andtowhatdegree)somethingisformallypossible;(2)whether(andtowhatdegree)somethingisfeasibleInvirtueofthemeansofimplementationavailable;(3)

47、whether(andtowhatdegree)somethingisappropriate(adequate,happy,successful)inrelationtoacontextinwhichitisusedandevaluated;(4)whether(andtowhatdegree)somethingisfactdone,actuallyperformed,andwhatitsdoingentails.Hymes’modeloflanguageuseiswithafacetowardcommunicationconductandsociallife.Inhisopinion,languageshouldplayaroleinabroadertheoryof

48、communication.Thestartingpointissociological,therolespeopleadopt,theirrightsandobligations,andtheunspokencontractstheyenterintopreservecommunication:Suchtheoryshowshowthesystemicallypossible,thefeasible,andtheappropriatearelinkedtoproduceand.interpretactuallyoccurringculturalbehavior.Hymes’semphasisontheimportanceofcontextindetermininga

49、ppropriatepatternsofbehavior,bothlinguisticandextra-linguistic,appealedtoteacherswhofoundanoveremphasisonaccurateuseoflanguagestructurestobeconfiningandunrealistic.Teachersandmaterialwritersbegantorealizethatifstudentswerereallytocommunicatewithspeakersofthelanguage,theyneedtoknownotonlythegrammarofthelanguage,butalsotheculturallyaccept

50、ablewaysofinteractingorallywithothers.Inotherwords,theyneedtoknowrulesoflanguageaswellasrulesof7nlanguageuse.Obviously,communicativecompetenceisnotsomuchabetterunderstandingofhowlanguageisstructured,butabetterunderstandingofhowlanguageisused.ThedistinctionbetweencompetenceandperformancefirstdifferentiatedbyChomskyhasbeenextendedtocover

51、communicativeaspectsoflanguagebyHymesandCanaleandSwainafterward.Itdefinitelyincludesknowledgethespeaker-listenerhasofwhatconstitutesappropriateaswellascorrectlanguagebehaviorandalsoofwhatconstituteseffectivelanguagebehaviorandrelationtoparticularcommunicativegoals.Inaccordancewiththediscussionofthecommunicativefunctionoflanguageatthatti

52、me,Hymes’theoryofcommunicativecompetencewasimmediatelyintroducedintolanguageteachingandwasregardedasoneoftheimportanttheoriesofCommunicativeApproach.2.1.2DevelopedfromtheFunctionalandSocialLinguisticPointofViewTheCommunicativeApproachinlanguageteachingstartsfromatheoryoflanguageascommunication.Whenwecommunicate,weusethelanguagetoaccompl

53、ishsomefunctions,suchasarguing,persuading,orpromising.Moreover,wecarryoutthesefunctionswithinasocialcontext.Aspeakerwillchooseaparticularwaytoexpresshisthoughtnotonlybasedonhisintentandhislevelofemotion,butalsoonwhomheisaddressingandwhathisrelationshipwiththatpersonis.Forexample,hemaybemoredirectinarguingwithhisfriendthanwithhisemployer

54、.Theseeducationalperspectivesevolvedalongside,andtosomeextentwerederivedfrom,significantdevelopmentsinlinguistics,sociolinguisticsandpsychology.Thereareanumberofquitewell-knownargumentswhichwillbeexplainedinthenextsection.TheCommunicativeApproachhasatheoryoflanguagerootedinthefunctionalschool.Functionallinguisticsisconcernedwithlanguage

55、asaninstrumentofsocialinteractionratherthanasasystemthatisviewedinisolation.Itconsidersthe8nindividualasasocialbeingandinvestigatesthewayinwhichheacquireslanguageandusesitinordertocommunicatewithothersinhissocialenvironment.Moreover,realworldlanguageinusedoesnotoperateinavacuum.Whenwegiveadvice,wedosotosomeone,aboutsomething,forapartic

56、ularreason.Soinadditiontotalkingaboutlanguagefunctionandlanguageform,thereareotherdimensionsofcommunicationtobeconsideredifwearetobeofferedamorecompletepicture.Thereare,atleast,topics(e.g.health,transport);contextandsetting(bothphysicalandsocial);androlesofpeopleinvolved.AccordingtoHalliday,aBritishlinguist,socialcontextoflanguageusecan

57、beanalyzedintermsofthreefactors:1.Thefieldofdiscourse:whatishappening,includingwhatisbeingtalkedabout;2.Thetenorofdiscourse:theparticipantswhoaretakingpartinthisexchangeofmeaning,whotheyareandwhatkindofrelationshiptheyhavetoeachother;3.Themodeofdiscourse:whatpartthelanguageisplayinginthisparticularsituation,forexample,inwhatwaythelangua

58、geisorganizedtoconveythemeaning,andwhatchannelisusedwrittenorspokenoracombinationofthetwo.Thisanalysisleadstoanewbranch,discourseanalysis,thestudyofhowsentencesinspokenandwrittenlanguageformlargermeaningfulunitssuchasparagraphs,conversations,andinterviews.Thesereflecthowlanguageisusedinrealcommunicationandwhatrulesofusemustbeobserved.Th

59、erefore,discourseanalysisbecomesanindispensablepartofCommunicativeLanguageTeaching.CloselyrelatedtoCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT)ispragmatics,thestudyoftheuseoflanguageincommunication.Pragmaticsisparticularlyinterestedintherelationshipsbetweensentencesandthecontextsandsituationsinwhichtheyareused.Itincludesthestudyofhowtheinterpreta

60、tionanduseofutterancesdependsonknowledgeoftheworld;howspeakersuseandunderstandspeechacts;andhowthestructureofsentencesisinfluencedbytherelationshipbetweenthespeakerandthehearer.Thestructuralviewoflanguageconcentratesonthegrammaticalsystem,9ndescribingwaysinwhichlinguisticitemscanbecombined.However,ifisnotsufficientonitsownaccountforhow

61、languageisusedasameansofcommunication.Whereasthesentencestructureisstableandstraightforward,itscommunicativefunctionisvariableanddependsonspecificsituationalandsocialfactors.Therelationshipbetweenthegrammaticalformsandtheircommunicativefunctionsisnotaone-to-onecorrespondence.Wilkins(1976)showshowtheimperativeformcanbeusedforsuggestion,t

62、hreat,instruction,direction,warningorinvitation,andhowthefunctionalcategory“command”canbeexpressedbyconditional,activedeclarative,presentcontinuousnegative,orthefuturetense.However,inmoretraditionalteaching,thiscomplexform-functionrelationshiptendstobesimplified,oftenimplyingaone-to-onecorrespondence,sothat“interrogatives”areusedfor“ask

63、ingquestions”,“imperatives”for“givingcommands”,andsoon.Thefactisthatasinglelinguisticformcanexpressanumberoffunctions,soalsocanasinglecommunicativefunctionbeexpressedbyanumberoflinguisticforms.Inacommunicativeperspective,thisrelationshipisexploredmorecarefully,andasaresultourviewsonthepropertiesoflanguagehavebeenexpandedandenriched(Litt

64、lewood,1981).Meanwhile,sometheoreticallinguistshavebecomeconsciousofthefactthatinlinguisticresearchmeaningandcontextwereneglected.Peoplebegantoconsidersemanticstobebasictoanytheoreticalmodeloflanguage.Meaningwasseentodependtoalargedegreeonthesocio-culturalcontextsinwhichspeechactsoccurred.Socio-culturalaspectsoflanguageinusehadbeenparti

65、cularlystressedbythefunctionalists,whoconsideredthepurposeslanguageservesinnormalinteractiontobebasictothedeterminationofsyntacticfunctions.Withthedevelopmentofsocio-linguisticsfromthe1960’s,itbecomesaninevitabletrendtochangethefocusfromanabstractstudyoflanguagetoconcreteactsoflanguageuse,especiallythestudyoftheindividual"scommunic

66、ativeactivityinitssocialsetting.Thestudyoflanguagehasswitchedtolinguisticfunctionsofspeechactsandtherelationshipsbetweenlinguisticformandsocialmeaning.Suchconcernimpliesthattheanalysisoflanguageisshiftingfromtheutteranceinisolationtothe10nstudyofacontext.Thisstudymustbeplacedtowards,anattempttoregardtheinterpersonalsocialactastheprimar

67、yeventandthespeechformsassecondary.Theactofcommunicationisthereforeseennotasabasicexchangeoflinguisticmessages,butratherasasociallymeaningfulepisodeinwhichtheuseoflanguageplaysapartonlyinasmuchasthesocialrulesandfunctionsarealreadypreviouslyagreeduponorareknownbytheparticipatesintheverbalexchange.Thereforeit"sconcludedthatthecharac

68、teristicsoflanguageusearelookedatmoreasindicatorsofasocialrelationshiporasmarkersofindividualinterpretationsoftheeventsthanasexamplesofsyntacticconstructions.Soonthestudyofthecultureinwhichthesecondlanguageisembeddedbecameapreoccupationofsecondlanguageteachers.Teachersandstudentsalikerealizedthat,ifthistypeofculturallybasedcompetencewas

69、tobeacquired,lecturesandreadingswerenotenough.Studentsmustalsohaveopportunitiestointeractwithnativespeakersinnaturalsettings.ThesignificanceofspokenEnglishteachingisfullyjustifiedinmanyrelevantlinguistictheories.AbalancedcommunicativeteachingmethodforspokenEnglishclassactuallyistheoutcomeofputtingCommunicativeLanguageTeachingintopractic

70、e,inturn;itwilljustifytheideathatcommunicativeabilityisthegoaloflanguagelearning.Therefore,thereisnodoubtaboutthetheoreticalvalueofspokenEnglishteaching.2.2ABriefReviewofCA2.2.1DefinitionsofCAAccordingtoLongmanDictionaryofAppliedLinguistic(1985),CommunicativeApproach(CA)canalsobecalledCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CA).Itisanapproachtofo

71、reignorsecondlanguageteachingwhichstressescommunicativecompetenceasthegoaloflanguagelearning.CAregardshumanlanguageasamodeofsocialcommunicativebehaviorthatisalwayssituationallyconditionedandsubjecttovariations.ManyscholarshavedefinedCAindifferentways.Johnson(1981:10)thinks,“Communicativelanguageteachingisonethatrecognizestheteachingofco

72、mmunicativecompetenceasitsaim.Itisonthislevelof11naimthatsuchalanguageteachingdistinguishesitselffrommoretraditionalapproacheswheretheemphasisisheavilyonteachingstructuralcompetence.Wemaythusseettherevisionofaimsasenrichment-anacceptancethattherearefurtherdimensionsoflanguagewhichneedteaching.”WhileLittlewood(1981:x-xi)states,“Acommuni

73、cativeapproachopensupawiderperspectiveonlanguageteaching.Inparticular,itmakesusmorestronglyawarethatitisnotenoughtoteachlearnerhowtomanipulatethestructureofforeignlanguage.Theymustalsodevelopstrategiesforrelatingthesestructurestotheircommunicativefunctionsinrealsituationsandrealtime.Wemustthereforeprovidelearnerswithampleopportunitiesto

74、usethelanguagethemselvesforcommunicativepurpose.”Widdowson(1999:159-160)holdsthat“theCAconcentratesongettinglearnerstodothingswithlanguage,toexpressconceptsandtocarryoutcommunicativeactsofvariouskinds.Acrucialelementofthecommunicativeapproachtolanguageteachingistheadoptionofamethodologywhichwillencouragelearnerstodothingswiththelanguage

75、theyarelearning,thekindofthingstheywillrecognizeaspurposefulandcommunicativeandhavesomeresemblancetowhattheyusetheirownlanguagetodo.”Sauvignon(1991)mentions,“Communicativelanguageteachinghasbecomeatermformethodsandcurriculathatembraceboththegoalsandtheprocessesofclassroomlearning”.AccordingtoFinocchiaroandBrumfit,inthecommunicativeappro

76、ach,languagelearningisseenas“learningtocommunicate”(1983:91),andthegoaloftheapproachistheacquisitionofcommunicativecompetencewhichenableslanguagelearnerstousethetargetlanguageforcommunicationeffectivelyandappropriately(1983:91-92).Thisapproachalsoviewsthat“thetargetlinguisticsystemwillbelearnedbestthroughtheprocessofstrugglingtocommunic

77、ate”(Finocchiaro&Brumfit,1983:92)andlearnersareexpectedtolearnthetargetlanguagethroughinteractionwithotherpeople(Finocchiaro&Brumfit,1983:93).CAisbestunderstoodasanapproach,notamethod(Brown,1994:245).Itisa12nlanguageteachingapproachwhichemphasizesonpromotinglearner’scommunicativecompetenceinthetargetlanguageusingcommunicativeac

78、tivities(Brown,1994:71).CAfocusesonlearners’abilitytounderstandandcommunicaterealinformationwitheachothers.Sotheactivitiesareinvolvedinrealcommunicationsuchascarryingoutmeaningfultasksorsharingnegotiationofmeaningandinteraction(Riggenbach&Lazaraton,1991:125).CAhasbeenunderstoodasemphasizingmeaningratherthanform.Thus,theteachingofora

79、lskillbecomesincreasinglyimportant.InCA,studentsareconsideredsuccessfuliftheycancommunicateeffectivelyintheirEnglish,Fromalltheabove-mentioneddefinitionsandstatements,researcherspresentedsomecommonprinciplesofCAasfollows:Firstly,thebasicgoaloflanguageteachingintheCAisgaining“communicativecompetence”.Secondly,theCAputsastrongemphasisonle

80、arners’real-lifelanguageuse.Thirdly,interactionwithotherpeopleisveryimportantforthelearnersandtheyshouldlearnhowtocommunicateinthetargetlanguageinrealtime.Allinall,CAisafluidandchangingbodyofideas,notatightlystructuralmethodofteaching,it’sabroadassemblyofideas,arangeofsources(somelinguistic,othersmorebroadlyeducational).Besides,CAconsis

81、tsoftwoversions:weakversionandstrongversion.Theweakvision,accordingtoHowatt(1984:279),“stressestheimportanceofprovidinglearnerswithopportunitiestousetheirEnglishforcommunicativepurposesand,characteristically,attemptstointegratesuchcommunicativeprocessesintoawiserprogramoflanguageteaching.”WhilethestrongversionofCA“advancestheclaimthatla

82、nguageisacquiredthroughcommunication,sothatitisnotmerelyaquestionofactivatinganexistingsystemitself.”Howattdescribestheformeras“learningtouseEnglish”’andthelatteras“usingEnglishtolearnit”.2.2.2TheDevelopmentofCA2.2.2.1TheGrowingDissatisfactionamongForeignLanguageTeachersandAppliedLinguistsbeforeCACommunicativeApproachoriginatedfromthema

83、jorchangesinBritish13nlanguageteachingtraditionfromthebeginning1970s.Untilthen,traditionalteachingmethodssuchasGrammar-translationMethodandAudio-lingualMethodhadrepresentedthemajorapproachtothefieldofFLT.Inthesemethods,languagewastaughtthroughpracticinggrammarrulesandbasicstructureswiththetheoryofstructuralismandbehaviorismastheguidanc

84、eprinciples.Languagelearningwasconsideredasaformationoflinguistichabit,whichwassubjecttothemodelofstimulusandresponse,andthetheoryofreinforcementandassociation.Itisnodoubtthattheresultsofapplyingthesemethodswerefarfromsatisfactory.Becauseinsuchcaseslanguagelearnersoftenfailedtotransferskillsacquiredthroughtraditionalmethodstorealcommuni

85、cativetasksoutsideclassroom.What’smore,itmightdoharmtostudents’confidenceandpotentials.Consequently,thetheoreticalfoundationsoftraditionalmethodswerecalledintoquestionbywesternlinguistsinbothlanguagetheoryandlearningtheory.Towardstheendofthe1960stherewentonagrowingdissatisfactionamongforeignlanguageteachersandappliedlinguistswiththedomi

86、natinglanguageteachingmethodofthetime.Languagelearnerswerethenrequired,aboveall,tomastergrammaticalformsaccurately,andthismasteryoflanguagestructureswasthemainmeasureofcompetenceinaforeignlanguage.Thecriticismwasthatthiskindofteachingproducedstructurallycompetentstudentswhowereoftencommunicativelyincompetent.Anotherreasonforthisdissatis

87、factionwasundoubtedlythefactthat,bythelate1960s,therewereincreasingpossibilitiesforinternationalcommunication,professionalcooperationandtravel,whetherforbusiness,furtherstudy,orotherpurposes.ThesechangesattractedtheattentionoftheCouncilofEurope.ThenanumberofexpertsproposedtosetupaschemetoteachthelanguagesofEurope,particularlywiththeneed

88、sofadultlearnersinmind.Manylinguistssawtheneedtofocuslanguageteachingoncommunicativeproficiencyratherthanonmeremasteryofstructures.Thescholarswhoadvocatedthisviewoflanguage,suchasChristopherCandlinandHenryWiddowson,drewontheworkofBritishfunctionallinguists(e.g.,JohnFirth,M.A.K.Halliday),Americanworkinsociolinguistics(e.g.,DellHymes,John

89、Gumperz,&WilliamLabov),aswell14nastheworkinphilosophy(e.g.,JohnAustinandJohnSearle).What’smore,theincreasinginterdependenceofEuropeancountriesresultedintheneedforgreatereffortstoteachadultsthemajorlanguagesoftheEuropeanCommonMarketandtheCouncilofEurope.ThelatterwasespeciallyactiveinpromotingthefoundationoftheInternationalAssociatio

90、nofAppliedLinguistics,andindevelopingbettermethodsoflanguageteaching.TheBritishlinguistD.A.Wilkins,whowasregardedasthefounderofthecommunicativeapproach,recognizesthreecategoriesofnotionsinhisfamousbookNotionalSyllabusesincluding:(1)semantic-grammaticalcategories;(2)modalmeaningormodality;(3)categoriesofcommunicativefunction.Hismajorcont

91、ributiontoCAliesinhiscreativeproposalofafunctionalorcommunicativedefinitionoflanguage,whichservesasabasisfordevelopingcommunicativesyllabusforlanguageteaching.Besides,hissystematicanalysisofthecommunicativemeaningsthatlanguagelearnersneedtounderstandandexpressratherthandescribethecoreoflanguagethroughtraditionalconceptsofgrammarandvocab

92、ularycontributesalottoCA.However,itwasuntil1979whenTheCommunicativeApproachtoLanguageTeachingbyC.J.BrumfitandK.Johnsonwaspublishedthattheterm“communicativelanguageteaching”becameformallypopularasanindependentapproach.TheCommunicativeApproachisessentiallyamanifestationofthe1970s,inthesensethatthiswasthedecadewhenthemostexplicitdebatetook

93、place,especiallyintheU.K.Thesubsequentperiodhasbeencharacterizedbyexplorationsofother,relatedpossibilitiesforthedesignofmaterialsandmethods.Thoughithasbeencriticizedinonewayoranother,itscentraltenetshavenotbeenrejected,andweshallfindthemincorporatedinagreatdealofcurrentthinking.Moreimportantly,perhaps,teachersinmanypartsoftheworldarefin

94、dingthattheyneedtocometotermswithchangesintheirrole,ascommunicativeprinciplesinlanguageteachingbecome15ncentralgoalsoftheireducationalsystems.2.2.2.2ContrastwiththeAudio-lingualMethodTheCommunicativeApproachhasbeendevelopedparticularlybyBritishappliedlinguistsasareactionawayfromgrammar-basedapproachessuchastheAudio-lingualMethod.TheAud

95、io-LingualMethod,ortheArmyMethodoralsotheNewKey,isastyleofteachingusedinteachingforeignlanguages.Itisbasedonbehavioristtheory,whichprofessesthatcertaintraitsoflivingthings,andinthiscasehumans,andcouldbetrainedthroughasystemofreinforcement—correctuseofatraitwouldreceivepositivefeedbackwhileincorrectuseofthattraitwouldreceivenegativefeedb

96、ack.TheAudio-lingualmethodistheproductofthreehistoricalcircumstances.Foritsviewsonlanguage,audio-lingualismdrewontheworkofAmericanlinguistssuchasLeonardBloomfield.TheprimeconcernofAmericanLinguisticsattheearlydecadesofthe20thcenturyhadbeentodocumentalltheindigenouslanguagesspokenintheUSA.However,becauseofthedearthoftrainednativeteachers

97、whowouldprovideatheoreticaldescriptionofthenativelanguages,linguistshadtorelyonobservation.Forthesamereason,astrongfocusonorallanguagewasdeveloped.Atthesametime,behaviouristpsychologistssuchasB.F.Skinnerwereformingthebeliefthatallbehavior(includinglanguage)waslearntthroughrepetitionandpositiveornegativereinforcement.Thethirdfactorthaten

98、abledthebirthoftheAudio-lingualmethodwastheoutbreakofWorldWarII,whichcreatedtheneedtopostlargenumberofAmericanservicemenallovertheworld.Itwasthereforenecessarytoprovidethesesoldierswithatleastbasicverbalcommunicationskills.Unsurprisingly,thenewmethodreliedontheprevailingscientificmethodsofthetime,observationandrepetition,whichwerealsoad

99、mirablysuitedtoteachingenmasse.Becauseoftheinfluenceofthemilitary,earlyversionsoftheaudio-lingualismcametobeknownasthe“armymethod”.Thisapproachtolanguagelearningwassimilartoanother,earliermethodcalledthedirectmethod.LiketheDirectMethod,theAudio-LingualMethodadvisedthatstudentsbetaughtalanguagedirectly,withoutusingthestudents’nativelangu

100、agetoexplainnewwordsorgrammarinthetargetlanguage.CharlesFries,thedirectoroftheEnglishLanguageInstituteattheUniversityofMichigan,thefirstofitskindin16ntheUnitedStates,believedthatlearningstructureorgrammarwasthestartingpointforthestudent.Inotherwords,itwasthestudents’jobtoorallyrecitethebasicsentencepatternsandgrammaticalstructures.Thes

101、tudentswereonlygiven“enoughvocabularytomakesuchdrillspossible.”(Richards,J.C.et-al,1986).Frieslaterincludedprinciplesforbehaviouralpsychology,asdevelopedbyB.F.Skinner,intothismethod.However,unliketheDirectMethod,theAudio-lingualMethoddidn’tfocusonteachingvocabulary.Rather,theteacherdrilledstudentsintheuseofgrammar.Appliedtolanguageinstr

102、uction,andoftenwithinthecontextofthelanguagelab,thismeansthattheinstructorwouldpresentthecorrectmodelofasentenceandthestudentswouldhavetorepeatit.Theteacherwouldthencontinuebypresentingnewwordsforthestudentstosampleinthesamestructure.Inaudio-lingualism,thereisnoexplicitgrammarinstruction-everythingissimplymemorizedinform.Theideaisforthe

103、studentstopracticetheparticularconstructuntiltheycanuseitspontaneously.Inthismanner,thelessonsarebuiltonstaticdrillsinwhichthestudentshavelittleornocontrolontheirownoutput;theteacherisexpectingaparticularresponseandnotprovidingthatwillresultinastudentreceivingnegativefeedback.Thistypeofactivity,forthefoundationoflanguagelearning,isindir

104、ectoppositionwithcommunicativelanguageteaching.2.2.2.3TheNotional-functionalSyllabusAnimportantforerunnerofwhatwenowcallcommunicativelanguageteachingwasthenotional-functionalsyllabus.(Syllabus,inthiscase,isatermusedmainlyintheUnitedKingdomtorefertowhatiscommonlyreferredtoasacurriculumintheUnitedStates.)BeginningwiththeworkoftheCouncilof

105、Europe(VanEkandAlexander,1975)andlaterfollowedbynumerousinterpretationsofnotionalsyllabuses(Wilkins,1976),notional-functionalsyllabusesbegantogrowinpopularityintheUnitedKingdominthe1970s.Thedistinguishingcharacteristicofthenotional-functionalsyllabusisitsattentiontofunctionsastheorganizingelementsofaforeignlanguagecurriculum.Grammarisat

106、tendedtoonlyinthatitexplainsthevariousformsusedtoaccomplishcertainfunctions.Notions,accordingtoVanEkandAlexander(1975)arebothgeneraland17nspecific.Generalnotionsareabstractconceptssuchasexistence,space,time,quantity,andquality.Theyaredomainsinwhichweuselanguagetoexpressthoughtandfeeling.Withinthegeneralnotionofspaceandtime,forexample,a

107、retheconceptsoflocation,motion,dimension,andspeed,lengthoftime,frequency,andsoforth.Specificnotionscorrespondmorecloselytowhatwehavebecomeaccustomedtocallingcontextsorsituations.Personalidentification,forexample,isaspecificnotion,ortopic,underwhichname,address,phonenumber,andotherpersonalinformationissubsumed.Otherspecificnotionsinclude

108、travel,healthandwelfare,education,shop-ping,services,andfreetime.Thefunctionalpartofthenotional-functionalsyllabuscorrespondstowhatwehavealreadydefinedaslanguagefunctions.Curriculaareorganizedaroundsuchfunctionsasidentifying,reporting,denying,declininganinvitation,askingpermission,andapologizing.VanEkandAlexander’s(1975)listoflanguagefu

109、nctions(discussedpreviouslyinthischapter)hasbecomeabasicreferencefornotional-functionalsyllabusdevelopment.Notional-functional(oftensimplyreferredtoaseitherfunctionalornotional)approachestolanguagehavebecomepopularunderpinningsforthedevelopmentofcommunicativetextbooksandmaterialsinforeignlanguagecourses.ThetableofcontentsofCoffey’s(1983

110、)FittingInisanappropriateexample:I.Introductions2.Greetings,Goodbyes3.Invitations4.Apologies,Condolences5.Gratitude,Compliments,Congratulations6.Requests,Commands,Warnings,Directions7.Offers,SeekingPermission8.Advice,Intentions9.Pleasure,DispleasureAtypicalunitinthistextbookincludespresentationofdialogues,conversationpracticewithaclassm

111、ate,situationsinwhichthestudentfiguresoutwhatwouldIsay,18nrole-plays,chartwork,multiple-choiceexercisesonfunctionalconsiderations,one-sideddialogsinwhichthestudentfillsinresponses,nonverbalconsiderations,discussionactivities,andcommunityexercisesforextraclasspractice.Aweaknessofthestructuralsyllabus,initsfocusongrammar,isitstendencytoh

112、ighlightagrammaticalfeaturetotheexclusionofpracticalapplicationinrealsituations.Whileasituationalapproachtoastructuralsyllabusispossible,sometimestheveryfactthatsituationsaredevisedtoillustrategrammar,insteadofgrammarillustratingafunction,keysthestudentartificiallyintogrammaticalcategoriesthatmaylaterimpedethecommunicativeprocess.Notion

113、alsyllabusesseektoovercomethatweaknessintheirattentiontotheultimatepurposeoflanguage:functional,pragmaticcommunicationbetweenandamonghumanbeings.Bothtypesofsyllabusmightclaimtoprovidethenecessarycomponentsoflanguageintermsoflearnerneeds.Ontheonehand,learnersmayneedabasicknowledgeofthelexicalandgrammaticalformsofthelanguageontheassumptio

114、nthatthisknowledgewillprovidetheessentialbasisforcommunicationwhentheyarefacedwithaneedtocommunicate.Ontheotherhand,thosewhofavorthenotionalsyllabusmightarguethatlearnersneedtolearnappropriatecommunicativebehaviorduringthecourseofstudiesandthatonsuchafoundationtheywillmoremeaningfullyacquirethegrammarofalanguage;inessence,learnerscannot

115、simplybelefttotheirowndevicesindevelopinganabilitytocommunicate.HenryWiddowson(1978)notedthatwhilethenotionalsyllabusclaimstodevelopcommunicativecompetencewithintheactualdesignofthesyllabusitself,suchisnotnecessarilythecase,sincethenotionalsyllabusstillpresentslanguageasaninventoryoffunctionalunitsratherthanstructuralunits,butstillisola

116、tes.Communicativecompetenceisnotacompilationofitemsinmemorybutasetofstrategiesorcreativeproceduresforrealizingthevalueoflinguisticelementsincontextsofuse,anabilitytomakesenseasaparticipantindiscourse,whetherspokenorwritten,bytheskillfuldeploymentofsharedknowledgeofcoderesourcesandrulesoflanguageuse(Widdowson,1978a:34).Similarly,MargieBe

117、rns(l984b:l5)warnedteachersthattextbooksthatclaimtohaveafunctionalbasemaybesorely19ninadequateandevenmisleadingintheirrepresentationoflanguageasinteraction.Shewentontoshowhowcontextistherealkeytogivingmeaningtobothformandfunctionandthereforematerials,inandofthemselves,willcontinuetofallshortofdevelopingalearner’scommunicativecompetence

118、.Thenotionalsyllabusdealswiththecomponentsofdiscourse,butmaynotdealwithdiscourseitself.Thenotionalsyllabus,then,isnotapanaceaorlastwordforlanguageteachers.Norisitmerelystructurallambservedupasnotional-functionalmutton(Campbell,1978:18).Whatnotionalsyllabusesdogiveusis,firstofall,anorganizationoflanguagecontentbyfunctionalcategories.Seco

119、nd,theyprovideameansofdevelopingstructuralcategorieswithinageneralconsiderationofthefunctionsoflanguage.Wehavenotarrivedatafinalsolutionwiththenotional-functionalsyllabus,butwehaveratherbegunanavenueofexplorationwhichweshouldcontinuewiththefullawarenessthatcommunicationinaforeignlanguageissomethingsocomplexthatitwillprobablyneverbereduc

120、edtoasimpleformulaoraneatlypackagedsyllabus.Communicationisqualitativeandinfinite;asyllabusisquantitativeandfinite.Thedistinguishingcharacteristicsofthenational-functionalsyllabus(NFS)wereitsattentiontofunctionsastheorganizingelementsofEnglishlanguagecurriculum,anditscontrastwithastructuralsyllabusinwhichsequencedgrammaticalstructuresse

121、rvedastheorganizers.Reactingtomethodsthatattendedtoostronglytogrammaticalforms,theNFSsoughttofocusstronglyonthepragmaticpurposestowhichweputlanguage.“Notions”,accordingtoVanEkandAlexander(1975),arebothgeneralandspecific.Generalnotionsareabstractconceptssuchasexistence,space,time,quantity,andquality.Theyaredomainsinwhichweuselanguagetoex

122、pressthoughtandfeeling.Withinthegeneralnotionofspaceandtime,forexample,aretheconceptsoflocation,motion,dimension,speed,lengthoftime,frequency,etc.“Specificnotions”correspondmorecloselytowhatwehavebecomeaccustomedtocalling“contexts”or“situations”.Personalidentification,forexample,isaspecificnotionunderwhichname,address,phonenumber,andoth

123、erpersonalinformationissubsumed.Otherspecificnotionsinclude,travel,healthandwelfare,education,shopping,services,andfreetime.20nThe“functional”partoftheNFScorrespondstolanguagefunctions.Curriculaareorganizedaroundsuchfunctionsasidentifying,reporting,denying,accepting,declining,askingpermission,apologizing,etc.VanEkandAlexanderlistsomese

124、ventydifferentlanguagefunctions.Wilkinsanalyzedthecommunicativemeaningsthatalanguagelearnerneedstounderstandandexpress,andheinsiststhatthestructuralcomponentcannotbeignored.However,theorientationoftheteachingisessentiallytowardthepurposesandsocialusesofcommunication,ratherthantheunderstandingandacquisitionoflinguisticfeatures.Forthelear

125、ningsequence,Wilkinsproposedacyclical,ratherthanalinearpresentationofconceptsandfunctions,sothatasstudentsadvancetheywillbelearningtoexpressthesamesemanticnotionswithmoredepthandappropriateness.Wilkins"sbookNotionalSyllabuses(Wilkins,1976)hadasignificantimpactonthedevelopmentofCommunicativeLanguageTeaching.Coursesfordifferentlangua

126、geswerethendevelopedbasedonhissemantic/communicativeanalysis.Abasiccoursewasdevelopedthatsetoutinspecificdetailexactlywhatstudentsatthresholdlevelshouldknowinordertocommunicateinparticularsituations.Later,thesematerialswereadaptedtotheneedsofsecondaryschoolsandincorporatedintelevisionprogramsforawiderpublic.TheNFSdidnotnecessarilydevelo

127、pcommunicativecompetenceinlearners.Firstofall,itisnotamethod.Itwasasyllabus.However,byattendingtothefunctionalpurposesoflanguage,andbyprovidingcontextual(notional)settingsfortherealizationofthosepurposes,itprovidedalinkbetweenadynastyofmethodsthatwasnowperishingandaneweraoflanguageteaching-CommunicativeLanguageTeaching.TheCommunicativeA

128、pproachisnowacceptedbymanyappliedlinguistsandclassroomteachersasthemosteffectiveapproachamongthoseingeneraluse.ThereareanumberofreasonswhytheCommunicativeApproachissoattractive.Apartfromprovidingaricherteachingandlearningenvironment,itcanfirstincludewiderconsiderationsofwhatisappropriateaswellaswhatisaccurate;seconditcanhandleawiderrang

129、eoflanguage,coveringtextsandconversationsaswellassentences;third21ntheCommunicativeApproachcanproviderealisticandmotivatinglanguagepractice;andlastlyituseswhatlearners“know”aboutthefunctionsoflanguagefromtheirexperiencewiththeirownmothertongue.IfwebrieflysummarizetheCommunicativeApproachwefindthatitviewslanguageasameansofconveyingmeani

130、ng.Itrecognizesthatlanguagestructureextendsabovesentencelevelandthatcontextiscrucialtothewaythatmeaningscanappropriatelybeexpressedandunderstood.Itthusacknowledgestheimportanceofnon-linguisticinformationinanyuseoflanguage.Asforitsviewoflearning,itisagreedthatlearningishelpedtooccurifinputismeaningfulandisbasedontopicsandactivitiesthatar

131、erelevantandinterestingtothelearners.Atthelevelofclassroomteaching,theCommunicativeApproachholdsthatactivitiesshouldprovideopportunitiesforlearnerstousethelanguage.Teachersshouldtrytomatchatleastsomeactivitiestolearners"interests,therebymaintaininglearners"motivation.Teachersandstudentsshouldcooperatetoallowtheswitchbetweenmor

132、eandlesscontrolledactivitiestotakeplacesmoothly.Materialsshouldbedesignedtoprovideteachersandlearnerswithabalanceofaccuracyandfluencybasedwork.Theyshouldbe"authentic"materialssoastopreparelearnersfortherealityofthesecondlanguageinuseoutsidetheclassroom.Withregardtosyllabusdesign,theCommunicativeApproachemphasizeslearners"

133、needs.Buthowtoidentifythoseneedsquicklyandcheaply,andtowhatextentalllearnerscanbesaidtohaveacommonneedisstillamatterofdisagreement.Itremainsvagueabouthowcloseitispracticallytotailorasyllabustolearners"needsandabouttherelativeimportanceofaccuracyandfluency.PeopleseemalsotorealizethepossiblepedagogicalrisksconnectedwithCLT.Themostobv

134、iousriskisthefossilizationoflearner"serrors.Itresultsfromoneofitsfundamentalprinciples,namely,thatitavoidsdirectcorrectionofspeecherrorsandmakestheteacheracceptstructurallyerroneousutterancesaswellasencouragingtheuseofcommunicativestrategies.Peopleworriedabouttheoveruseofcommunicationstrategiesbythelearners,whobecomeveryadaptedatem

135、ployingthesestrategiesanddevelopwhatCanaleandSwain(1980)call“strategiccompetence.”thatistheability22ntogetmeaningacrossinspiteofaninadequateoverallcompetenceinthetargetlanguage.Thoughthisabilityisnecessaryincommunication,itinvolvesacertaindanger:thelossofmotivationforfurtherlearningandfurtherlinguisticdevelopment.Manylearnersmayoftenfe

136、eldisinclinedtoinvesteffortintofurtherlearningwhentheyknowthat,afterall,theycanalreadycopewiththemosturgentcommunicativesituation.Andwhat"smore,CLTisunclearabouthowtherulesofusecanbetaughtthoughitemphasizestheimportanceofteachingtherulesofuse.Afterall,classroomsettingisdifferentfromreal-lifesituation.ThereismuchintheCommunicativeAp

137、proachthatisstillopentodebate,andpeoplehavereactedinvariouswaystoandagainstthecommunicativemovementsincethe1970s.However,themainprinciples,withvaryingdegreesofchangeandmodification,havehadalastingimpactonmaterialsandmethodsthatshouldnotbeunderestimated.Infollowingsections,thetheoriesrelatedtoCAareexplicitlyintroduced.2.2.3MajorFeatureso

138、fCAScholarsfromdifferenteducationaltraditionsinterprettheCAindifferentways.However,what’scommoninalltheversionsisthatCAisatheoryoflanguageteachingthatstartsfromacommunicativemodeloflanguageandlanguageuse,whichcanbepresentedinanumberofdistinctivefeaturesthatmostCAinterpretationsshare.ThefeaturesofCAcanbepresentedasfollows:First,CAfocuses

139、oncommunicativeandcontextualfactorsinlanguageuse.Languagecannotbelearnedinisolation.Thetotalmeaningofanutterancecanonlybededucedwithanassociationtoitssocio-culturalcontext.Thesecondfeatureislearner–centeredandexperience-basedviewoflanguageteaching.Experienceisthebestofallschools.Theidealcurriculumconsistsofwell-selectedexperiences(Apple

140、bee,1974:119).Individuallearnerspossessuniqueinterests,styles,needs,andgoals,whichshouldbereflectedinthedesignofmethodsofinstruction.Thelastoneislearningbydoing.Thetargetlanguageislearnedbestthroughthe23nprocessofstrugglingtocommunicate.Fromtheverybeginninglearnersshouldbeencouragedtoengagethemselvesinmeaningfulcommunication.Thatistosa

141、y,CAstressestheneedtoallowstudentsopportunitiesforauthenticandcreativeuseofthelanguage.Itfocusesonmeaningratherthanform;itsuggeststhatCommunicativeLanguageTeachinginOralEnglishInstructionlearningshouldberelevanttotheneedsofthestudents;itadvocatestask-basedlanguageteaching.Studentsshouldbegiventaskstoperformorproblemstosolveintheclassroo

142、m.What’smore,CAemphasizesafunctionalapproachtolanguagelearning(i.e.whatpeopledowithlanguage,suchasinviting,apologizing,greetingandintroducing,etc.).Also,tobecompetentinthetargetlanguage,learnersshouldacquirenotonlylinguisticknowledge,butalsotheculturalbackgroundofthatlanguage.Besidestheabovementionedfeatures,RichardsandRodgers(1986:71)d

143、escribeothersignificantcharacteristicsofthisapproachincludingitseffortstomaketasksandlanguageconnectedtotargetgroupoflearnersthroughagenuine,realisticanalysis;itemphasizesontheuseofauthenticmaterialsanditsattempttocreateasecure,nothreateningatmosphere.While,accordingtoLittlewood(1981),oneofthemostcharacteristicfeaturesofcommunicativelan

144、guageteachingisthatitpayssystematicattentiontofunctionsaswellasstructuralaspectsoflanguage.2.2.4MajorFormsofCA2.2.4.1Role-playRole-playisawayofbringsituationsfromreallifeintotheclassroom.Role-playactivitiesarethosewherestudentsareaskedtoimaginethattheyareindifferentsituationsandactaccordingly.Theconceptof“role”isausefulonebecauseitcanli

145、nkwhattakesplaceintheclassroomwithwhattakesplaceoutsideit.Bythismeans,oralcommunicativeapproachfindsthebestformtorealizeitsadvantage.It’snotonlyintheclassroomthatteachersperformroles.Theyaredoingsoallthetimeindailylife:inthejobsteachersperformtheroleofteacher,perhapsalsosupervisororheadofadepartment.Athometheymayperformtheroleofparent,d

146、aughterorson.In24nothercontexttheymayperformtheroleofacquaintance,strangernoviceorexpert;andsoon.Ineachcontext,theynormallyadapthowtheybehaveinwaysthattheyhavelearnttoassociatewiththeirroles.Teachersmaytellstudentstorole-playbeingguestsataparty,answeringcustomerquestionsattravelagencyorparticipantsinapublicmeetingaboutaroad-buildingpro

147、jectforexample.Thisisnotthesameaspracticeinwhichmoredetailedstudytakesplace;insteaditisawayforstudentsto‘getthefeel’ofwhatcommunicatingintheforeignlanguagereallyfeelslike.Inrole-play,theteachergivesrolecardstostudentsforpairwork.Role-playingminimallyinvolvesgivingaroletooneormoremembersofagroupandassigninganobjectiveorpurposethatpartici

148、pantsmustaccomplish.Inthefollowingrole-play,pairedstudentsareaskedtoprovidesustainedspeechforthespecificpurposeofpersuadingeachotherwithoutcausingoffense.StudentA:Youlikedancingandgoingtodiscos.Suggesttoyourpartnerthatyougooutthisevening.Trytopersuadehim/hertogowhereyouprefer.StudentB:Youdon"tlikedancingandgoingtodiscos.Youprefergo

149、ingtothecinemaortoaconcert.Trytopersuadeyourparenttogoyouprefer.(LiaoXiaoqing,2001:39).Often,role-playcanbebasedonadialogueortextfromthetextbook.Usedinthisway,roleplaygivesstudentsanopportunitytousethelanguagetheyhavepracticedinamorecreativeway.Therearetwowaysoforganizingroleplayactivities.Oneistheteacherasksoneortwo‘good’pairsofstudent

150、stoimproviseaconversationinfrontoftheclass,andthendividestheclassintopairstohavesimilarconversations.Anotherwayistoaskstudentstopracticetheroleplayprivatelyinpairsfirst,andthenaskoneortwostudentstoperforminfrontoftheclass.2.2.4.2Story-tellingStory-tellingisanactivity,whichteachesandentertains.Allstudentsenjoystorytelling.Storiesbreakthe

151、monotonyoftraditionallessonsbecausetheyusethereallanguageofpersonalcommunication.Italsoinvolveslisteningandintroducingstudentstothestructureandlanguagepatternsofnarratives.Theteacherasa25nstorytellermustusedifferentfacialexpressions,tonesofvoiceandhiswholebodytodramatizeagoodreading.“Storieshelpstudentstoknowthemselvesandtoknowothersso

152、theycancopewithpsychologicalproblemsofgrowingup”.Theteachershouldchoosestorieshe/shelikesinordertotellthemeffectively.Theyoughttobechosenforthestudents’interestsandlevels.Besidesitshouldnotbetoolongandcontainpositivevalues.Thestudentscanretellthestoriesortheteachercanaskquestions,e.g.“Whereisthestorygoingon?”“Whatisthenameofthemainchara

153、cter?”,“Whatcanyoutellabouthisfriend?”,“Whathappenedtothemaincharacter?”etc.Theteachercanstoptowardstheendandaskthestudentstofinishit.Therestoftheclassmustguesstheaction.2.2.4.3CommunicativeGamesThecommunicativegamescanmakestudentslearnEnglishinarelaxedandhappysituation.Inclass,studentscandotheseactivitiesinpairsorgroups.Gamescouldbeany

154、activitiesthatformalizeatechniqueintounitsthatcanbescoredinsomeway.Therearemanyvariations,forexample,guessinggamesarecommonlanguageclassroomactivities.Forexample,“twentyquestions”iseasilyadaptedtoasmallgroup.Onestudentchoosesafamousperson,andtheothersaskyes-noquestionsuntiltheidentityofthepersonisdetermined.Or,onestudentdrawsapictureofa

155、fruitorobjectandturnsitoveronthedesk;thepartnerguesseswhattheitemisbyasking,“Doyouhavea…?”untilthecorrectanswerisfound.Anothervariationisfortheteachertoprovideashort,incompletestoryplotforstudentstodiscussandguessthewayitends.Forexample:Amanhasbeenfounddeadinaphonebox.Thereisblood.Weknowthathewasspeakingtosomeoneonthephonejustbeforehedi

156、edbecausethereceiverisoffthehook.Howdidthemandie?Theteacherrevealstheanswertoonlyonestudent;therestoftheclassmustguesstheanswerbyaskingthatstudentquestionsabouttheplotthatcanbeansweredonlywithyes,no,orirrelevant.2.2.4.4ExchangingInformationManycommunicativeactivitiesaredesignedtobedonebystudentsworkinginpair.Tocreateaneedtocommunicate,t

157、hetwostudentsineachpairaregiven26ndifferentinformation.Theactivitycanthenworkinvariousways.Forexample,onestudenthassomeinformation,andtheotherstudenthastofinditoutbyaskingquestions,oronestudenthassomeinformationandtellsittotheotherstudent.Anotherwayisthatbothstudentshavedifferentinformation,andtheytelleachother.Oneoftheeasiestandmostin

158、terestingformsofcommunicativeactivityintheclassroomisforstudentstotelleachotherabouttheirownlives,interests,experiences,etc.Whenstudentstalkaboutthemselves,thereisanatural‘informationgap’,becauseeverybodyhassomethingslightlydifferenttosay.Theadvantageofadoptingactivitiesliketheseinclassisthattheyprovideintensiveandinterestinglanguagepra

159、ctice.Althoughtheexercisesarequitecontrolledandusesimplelanguage,thestudentsarereallyexchanginginformationandusinglanguagecommunicatively.Theteacherscanalsostimulateproductionbyusingapicturestory.He/shedrawssomethingontheblackboardandthestudentsarerequiredtosaywhatitisorwhatisgoingon.Everybodyinclasscanparticipate.Next,theteacherdrawsan

160、otherpictureandthelearnersaddanothersentence.Eachsucceedingdrawingisdescribedandthestudentstrytomakealogicalstory.Inturnthestudentscanconstructtheirs.Itcanbealsodonethrougharrangingreadypictures.Accordingtotheneedandaclassroomenvironmentthatwillstimulatethoughtandfeelingwhilecultivatinglisteningandspeakingskill,theteachershouldprovidesu

161、itabletechniquessuchaspairwork,group-workortheclassasawhole,whilestoriescontributetoestablishingthatkindofenvironment.2.3RelatedStudiesatHomeChinastartedCAintheearly70s.In1979,LiXiaojuandhercolleaguesinGuangzhoubeganwritingandteachingasetofcommunicativeEnglishtextbooksentitled“CommunicativeEnglishforChineseLearners”(CECL).CECLasserts“la

162、nguageiscommunicationandlearningalanguageislearningtocommunicate”(Li1984).Herarticleentitled“Indefenseofthecommunicativeapproach”(1984)isthefirstonepublishedintheCAJournal,whichhadabiginfluenceonteachers’attitudes27ntowardsCA.Theparticularcontentofthisarticleistheauthor’sconcerntobreakdowntheresistancetoCAcausedbydecadesofworkingwithin

163、theconstraintsofstructuralgradingandtheconsequentemphasisonlanguageformratherthanuse.In1992theStateEducationDevelopmentCommission(SEDC)introducedafunctionalsyllabus,inwhichtheaimofCAwassetandthecommunicativefunctionstobetaughtwerelisted.Inthesameyear,incooperationwiththeBritishLongman,theSEDCpublishedanewtextbookseries.Thesyllabusandthe

164、textbooksrequiredteacherstoteachcommunicativelyinclassrooms.“ThehighlycentralizedChinesesystemofeducationsubvertsthedevelopmentofmoreeffectivemethodsofteachingEnglishinanumberofways,particularlyinthewaysforeignlanguageteachersareselectedandtrained,materialsandmethodschosen,andprogramsandteachersareevaluated”(Campbell&Zhao,1993).Sinc

165、ethenseveralprojectssuchasJuniorEnglishforChina(JEC)haveintegratedthetopicsrelevanttoChinesestudentsandcommonexpressionsincommunicationwithgrammaticalstructures.Suchintegration,indailyfact,representstheweakversionofCA(Howatt,1984),whichpromotesthedevelopmentofcommunicativecompetence.“Manyteachershavetriedtochangethedominantteachingproce

166、duresbutquicklygetfrustrated,losetheirinitialenthusiasm,andacquiescetotradition.”(Campbell&Zhao,1993).Hird(1995)statesthatCAisnoteffectivelycommunicativeinChina.“ChinaisavastlydifferentEnglishlanguageteachingenvironmentfromtheonethatspawnedandnurturedthecommunicativeapproach.ItseemsthattheintroductionofCAinChinahashighlightedaconfli

167、ctbetweenexpectedoutcomesandactualresults”(Hu,2002).AnumberofreportsontheapplicationofCAtoChinahaverevealedseveralhindrancesconcerningtheconservativeattitudesofteachersandstudents,educationalpolicyandthelocalculturalcharacteristics.BurnabyandSun(1989)reportedthatteacherstherefounddifficultyinapplyingCA.Onesuspectedcauseofthebluntingofth

168、isimpactperhapsarisesfromtheChinesetraditionalwayofteaching.Othercausesmayincludetheteacher’sdeficienciesinoralEnglishaswellasinsocio-linguisticandstrategiccompetence,largeclasssize,andlimitedinstructiontimeandexaminationpressure.28nAnderson’s(1993)studyofCAinChinalistedtheobstaclessuchaslackingofproperlytrainedteachers,lackingofapprop

169、riatetextsandmaterials,anddifficultiesinevaluatingwhatstudentshavebeentaught.Theabove-mentioneddifficultiesofapplyingCAinChinaasreferredtointherelatedresearchwerealmostonlybasedontheteachers"andeducationists’perceptions.ThereislittleempiricalresearchavailablethatinvestigatesthestatusquooftheapplicationofCAbythequestionnaireandwhat&

170、quot;smore,investigatesthestudents’attitudestowardsCA.29nChapter3MethodologyTheauthordiscussesthemethodologyofthethesis.Firstlytheauthorliststhethreeresearchquestions.Andthen,thesubjectsandtheinstrumentsarebrieflyintroduced.Theprocedureoftheexperimentanddatacollectionisillustratedinthefollowingpart.Theresearchconsistsofanexperiment,aqu

171、estionnaireandsomeinterviewswiththeteachersandstudents.3.1TheResearchQuestionsThisresearchisaimedatfindingimplicationsfortheEnglishteachersinJuniorHighSchoolonhowtofostertheoralabilityinstudentsandwhethertoimplementCAinfurtherspokenEnglishteaching.Throughtheexperimentandtheinterviewwiththeteacherafterit,itwillbeinferredthatwhetherCAisef

172、fectivetotrainstudents’speakingproficiencyandtowhatdegree.Throughanalyzingthequestionnairesaccomplishedbythechosenstudents,itwillbedrawnthatwhetherthestudentsliketheapplicationofcommunicationactivities,whatkindofcommunicativeactivitiestheypreferandwhethertheyliketoexperienceCAintheirfurtherEnglishstudy.Therearemainlythreeresearchquestio

173、nsthattheauthorintendstoexploreintheresearch:(1)IsCAeffectiveinspokenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschool?(2)Whichofthemethodsusedinclassdothestudentsprefer?(3)Whatareeffectivestrategiestoimprovethestudents’oralabilitythroughCAinjuniorhighschool?3.2ParticipantsandInstrumentsThesubjectsare64studentsinGrade3ofajuniorhighschoolinChangchun.The

174、authorchoosesonenaturalclassastheresearchsubjectsbecauseinthisway,theinteractionbetweenthestudentswillbeeasier.Inthepresentstudy,twoinstrumentsareappliedtoachievetheintendedpurpose:30n(1)Interviewswiththestudentsandsometeachers;(2)Questionnaire;(3)Observationsbytheteachers.3.3DataCollectionandAnalysisThestudyattemptstoevaluatetheeffect

175、ivenessandfeasibilityofCAinjuniorhighschoolspokenEnglishclasses.SincetherearefewparticularEnglishoralclassesinjuniorhighschool,theauthorhasthestudentstaughtintheirsparetimeeveryweek.Besidestheauthor,therearealsothreeotherteacherswhoarequiteexperiencedinteachingjuniorschoolstudentsthathaveinvolvedintheclassactivities.Thusinoneclass,there

176、arefourteachers.Theauthorisresponsibleforchoosingsuitabletopicsforthestudentsandsetuptheexperimentdesign,andallofthefourteachersareresponsiblefororganizingclassroomactivitiesandobservingthestudents.Thedatamainlycomefromthreeresources:(1)theresultsofthequestionnaireswhichareansweredbythestudentsaftertheexperiment.Thepurposeofthequestionn

177、aireistotesttheeffectivenessofCAinspokenEnglishclassinjuniorhighschool;(2)randomobservationsaccomplishedbytheteachers;(3)theinterviewswhichareconductedamongtheteachersaswellasthestudents.Accordingly,thedatacollectionandanalysisinvolvethefollowingfoursteps:Step1:Threeexperienceteachersareinvitedintotheclasstohelporganizeclassroomactiviti

178、esandobservethestudents.Step2:Theauthorpicksoutthequestionnaireswhicharesuitableforanalyzing.Step3:Theauthorconductstheinterviewsamongthestudents.Step4:Theauthorconductstheinterviewsamongtheteachers.Theanswersoftheteachersshouldbebasedontheirobservations.Alloftherecordeddatawillbetranscribedanddiscussedindetailbytheauthorinthenextchapte

179、r.31nChapter4ResultsandDiscussionInthischapter,therecordeddatawillbetranscribedandcheckedbytheauthor.Duringtheteachingpractice,CAisadopted.Atfirsttheteacherasksthestudentstopreviewthenewwordsandthepassagebeforeclass.Duringtheclass,theteachergivesabriefintroductiontothebackgroundknowledgeandthepassage.Afterthat,theteacherelicitssomeques

180、tionsfromthestudentstochecktheirunderstandingofthepassageandthenorganizedthemtodomechanicalexercisestomasterlanguagepoints.Besides,nearlyhalfoftheclasstimewasdevotedtodoingalotoforalactivitiesincertainnear-realsituations.Thatistosay,theteacherimplementssomewarming-upactivitiessuchasfreediscussion,role-play,personalinformationexchange,st

181、ory-tellingcommunicativegames,oralpresentationetc.mentionedabovetoarousestudents’motivation.Thetopicsandpatternsoftheseactivitiesareflexibleaccordingtotheneedsofthestudents.Duringthemainpartofaclass,theteacherusesvariousformsoforalactivitiestomaximizetheefficiencyofclasstime,suchasproblem-solvingactivities.Inthefollow-upperiod,theteache

182、rintroducesandrecommendsmanykindsoforalactivitiesforconsolidatingandenlargingtheiracquiredknowledge,forexample,text-rewriting,text-retelling,interview,surveyandquestionnaireetc.Attheendofeachactivity,theteacherevaluatedandcommentedonstudents’performance,givingthemnecessaryfeedbackforfurtherdevelopment.Ontheotherhand,theteacheralsoasksab

183、outherstudents’feelingsandsuggestionsaboutthepatternandtheeffectoftheseoralclassactivities.Basedonthefeedback,theteacherrevisedandimprovedtheoralactivitiestomeetbothparties’needs.Thepurposeofthisperiodistoaskstudentstofocusonlanguageorinformationandhowitisconstructed.Thestudentsandtheteachercommentonthestudents’performanceandfindoutsome

184、mistakesthestudentsmakeinthecommunicativeactivities.Thestudentswillstudytheconstructionofthetextortheuseofsomelanguagepointswithinit.Studentsarequitewillingtohavethisstageinspeakingclassesbecausethestudentswanttohavemoreaccuratelanguageuse.32n4.1TheAnalysisoftheQuestionnaireAftertheonemonthofteaching,datafromthequestionnairearecollecte

185、d.TheresultsofthequestionnairegoasthefollowsTable3.1DatafromtheQuestionnaire(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)174%19%7%279%11%10%396%3%1%452%2%10%29%4%3%57%3%69%14%6%1%616%18%21%19%15%11%(1)-(6)=optionsofthequestions;1-6=questionnumbersAfterconductingthequestionnaires,someinterviewsarecarriedoutamongthestudentsandtheteacherswhohaveinvolvedinthisresearc

186、h.Theinterviewsaremainlyaboutthetworesearchquestionsmentionedin4.1:“Dothestudentswelcomethiskindofteachingapproach?”and“Arethereeffectivestrategiestoimprovethestudents’oralabilitythroughCAinjuniorhighschool?”Withthefirstquestion,someofthestudentsareinterviewed,andthesecondquestionisreservedfortheteacherstodiscuss.4.2GeneralDescriptionof

187、CAinJuniorSchoolBasedonthedataandanswerscollectedabove,thethreeresearchquestionswillbedressedoninthenextafewsections.Theobjectivesofthispartgoasthefollowing:toinvestigatetheeffectivenessofCAinspokenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschool;todiscussthemethodsthatmightbepreferredbythestudents;toexploreeffectivestrategiestoimprovethestudents’oral

188、abilitythroughCA.Theauthorwilladdressthesethreeproblemsonebyoneindetail.4.2.1TheFrequentUseofCAinOralEnglishClass33nThefirstresearchquestionwillbeexploredbyanalyzingtheresultsofthequestionnairesandinterviewingbrieflywithsomeofthestudents.Beforetheexperiment,thestudentsinthisclassthoughtthattheactivitiestheyoftendidinclasswere:readingal

189、oudandrecitation.Dialogue,story-telling,Englishsongsandgamesweretheactivitiestheysometimesdidintheirspeakingclass.Debatesandinterviewsweretheactivitiestheyseldomdidinclassandtheyhadneverdoneinformationgapactivitiesandroleplay.Throughanalyzingthequestionnaires(SeeAppendix)aftertheexperiment,theauthorfindsthatmorethan74%ofthestudentssayth

190、attheyfeeltheyhavemadesignificantprogressduringtheexperiment(theiranswerstothefirstquestionareYES),andnowcanspeakverywell,andmorethanhalfofthesestudentsadmitthattheirimprovementliesmainlyonthefourweeks’experimentaboutapplyingCAinspokenclass.Withthesecondquestion,about80%ofthestudentschooseYES,sincetheactivitiesaresointerestingwhichmaket

191、heclassesinterestinganddifferentfromtheonestheyhadbefore.Maybetheeffectsonsomeofthestudentsarenotsogreatastheothers,thiskindofteachingapproachisstillfavoredbymoststudents.ForquestionNo3,almosteverystudentadmitsthattheteachingapproach(CA)employedduringthefourweeksarequitedifferentfrombefore.Fromtheaboveanalysis,theauthorcoulddrawtheconcl

192、usionthattheCA-orientedteachingmethodsdohavepositiveeffectsonstudents’spokenabilityinjuniorhighschool,andthestudentswarmlywelcomethiskindofteachingmethods.4.2.2ThePreferenceofCertainMethodsinOralEnglishClassTheanswerstoQuestion4,5,and6arethekeytothesecondresearchquestion.Withthefourthquestion,52%ofthestudentschoose(1)role-playing,and29%

193、ofthestudentschoose(4)guessinggames.WhilewithQuestion5,moststudentschoosethethirditemregardingstory-telling.Thisresultrepresentsthatthestudentsjuniorhighschoolprefertheactivitieswhichcanneedmoreinteractions,eitherbetweenstudentsandteacher(guessinggamessometimes),oramongpeers(role-playing).34nTheanswersthesixthquestiondiversefromoneanot

194、heralot,whichmeansthatthestudentscouldnotagreeonthispoint.Somestudentschooserole-playing,andtherearealsosomeotherstudentswhoselectdebatingandlisteningtoEnglishsongs.TheanswerstothisquestionshouldcauseseriousthinkingamongtheEnglishteachersinjuniorhighschool.4.2.3TheEffectiveStrategiestoImproveStudents’OralAbilitythroughCAAfterthefour-wee

195、kexperiment,theauthorinterviewedtheotherthreeteacherswhosemainresponsibilitywastohelporganizeclassroomactivitiesandtoobservethestudentsinvariousactivities.AllofthethreeteachersansweredthethirdresearchquestionandproposedseveralsuggestionsoneffectivestrategiesaboutemployingCAinjuniorhighschooloralclass.Whentheinterviewsarefinished,theauth

196、orsummarizestheideasofthethreeteachers,andintegrateswiththeobservationofherowninordertoanswerthethirdquestion.Thefollowingarethepossiblestrategies:4.2.3.1IntroducingAuthenticMaterialintoClassCommunicativelanguageteachingstressestheneedoflettingthestudentstobeexposedtoauthenticandcreativeuseofthelanguage.Itusuallymakesuseofreal-lifesitua

197、tionsthatrequirecommunication.Thatistosay,theteacherbuildsupasituationthatstudentsaremostlylikelytoencounterintheirreallives.Unliketheaudio-lingualmethodoflanguageteaching,whichreliesonrepetitionanddrills,thecommunicativeapproachcanleavestudentsinsuspenseastotheoutcomeofaclassexercise,whichwillvaryaccordingtotheirreactionsandresponses.T

198、hesimulationsinreallifechangefromdaytoday.Students’motivationtolearncomesfromtheirdesiretocommunicateinmeaningfulwaysaboutmeaningfultopics.Thefollowingisanexampleofcommunicativeexercisesinthisaspect.Instructionstostudents:Listentoaconversationsomewhereinapublicplaceandbepreparedtoanswer,inthetargetlanguage,somegeneralquestionsaboutwhatw

199、assaid.Whowastalking?35nAbouthowoldwerethey?Whereweretheywhenyoueavesdropped?Whatweretheytalkingabout?Whatdidtheysay?Didtheybecomeawarethatyouwerelisteningtothem?Theexercisepositionsstudentsinareal-worldlisteningsituationwheretheymustreportinformationtheyhaveheard.Mostlikelytheyhaveopinionsofthetopic,andaclassdiscussioncouldfollowinthe

200、targetlanguageabouttheirexperiencesandviewpoints.Communicativeexercisesatanappropriatelychallenginglevelsuchasthiscanmotivatethestudentsbytreatingtopicstheychoosebythemselves.4.2.3.2Teacher-studentInteractionsItisusuallybelievedthattheteacherisaresourceofknowledge,evenasawalkingdictionary.Itistheteacherwhoovertlycontrolstheteachingproce

201、ssasacenter,whilestudentsmaintainapassiveandminorrole.Inthiskindofteacher-centeredclasses,interactionisatypicalteacher-studentdialog.Differentfromthetraditionalteachingprocess,modernlanguageteachingtheoriesholdthattheteachingprocessisoneinwhichbothteachersandstudentsparticipatejointly.InCommunicativeApproach,theteacherhastwomainroles:to

202、facilitatethecommunicationprocessbetweenallparticipantsintheclassroomandbetweentheseparticipantsandthevariousactivitiesandtexts;toactasanindependentparticipantwithinthelearning-teachinggroup.Thelatterroleiscloselyrelatedtotheobjectivesofthefirstroleandarisesfromit.Theserolesimplyaseriesofsecondaryrolesfortheteacher:(1)Anorganizerofresou

203、rcesandasaresourcehimself(2)Aguidewithintheclassroomproceduresandactivities(3)Aresearcherandlearner,withmuchtocontributeintermsofthenatureoflearningandorganizationalcapacities.Theroleoftheteacherisnolongerjustaresourceorlecturer,butalsoadirector,facilitator,organizer,andmoreimportantacreatorofenvironmentinwhichlearnerslearnhowtolearn.36

204、n4.2.3.3CreatinganInteractiveClassroomHedgehaspointedout:“Speakingactivitiesareprobablythemostdemandingforstudentsandteachersintermsoftheaffectivefactorsinvolved.”(Hedge,2002:293)Tryingtoproducelanguageinfrontofotherstudentscangeneratehighlevelofanxiety.Studentsmightfeelthattheyarepresentingthemselvesatamuchlowerlevelofcognitiveability

205、thantheyreallypossess;theymayhaveanaturalanxietyaboutbeingincomprehensible;alsotheymighthaveculturalinhibitionsaboutlosingface,ortheymaysimplybeshypersonalitieswhodonotspeakverymuch.Therefore,itisachiefresponsibilityfortheteacherstocreateaencouragingclassroomenvironmentinwhichstudentsarepreparedtotakerisksandexperimentwiththelanguage.Th

206、eteachershouldtrytocreatecommunicativeactivitiesdesignedfororalclassroominteraction.Intheprevioussections,theauthorhasdiscussedtheclassroomclimatetosupportgroupinteraction.However,therealizationofinteractiveteachingprocessisthroughcommunicativeactivities.AsCanalepointsout“thesecondlanguagelearnermusthavetheopportunitiestotakepartinmeani

207、ngfulcommunicativeinteraction,thatis,torespondtogenuinecommunicationneedsandinterestsinrealisticsecondlanguagesituations.Thisprincipleisimportantnotonlywithrespecttoclassroomactivities,buttotestingaswell.”(RichardsandSchmidt,1983:18)InCA,classroomactivitiesareoftendesignedtofocusoncompletingtasksthataremediatedthroughlanguageorinvolvene

208、gotiationofinformationandinformationsharing.Studentscanlearnlanguageandmeanwhiledevelopcommunicativecompetencethroughcommunicativeactivitiesbecause“activitiesthatinvolverealcommunicationpromotelearning”and“activitiesinwhichlanguageisusedforcarryingoutmeaningfultaskspromotelearning”(Richards&Rodgers,1986:72).Communicativeactivitiesar

209、epossibleandfeasibletooralclassteaching.Theimportantthingistodesignsuitableactivitiesandthemostcrucialonemightbethegroupworkactivities.Interactivelanguageteachinghighlightstheimportanceoftheteacherbeingaclassroominteractionmanagerandfacilitator.Therefore,inoralclass,itistheteacher"smainresponsibilitytotryeveryefforttoseekouteveryop

210、portunitytoincreaseinvolvementandmaximizethequalityandquantityof37ninteraction.Totrainstudents’communicativecompetence,theteacher,ontheonehand,shouldcreateacommunicativeenvironmentandprovidelearnerswithsufficientinput.Ontheotherhand,fromtheperspectiveofpsycholinguistics,tocreateasafe,relaxedandpleasantatmosphereisalsovitallyimportant.S

211、uccessfulteachersteachnotonlyatthecontentlevelbutalsotherelationshiplevel.Teachersshouldbesensitivetothestudents’affectiveneedsandbeempathetic,warmandrewarding.Inoralclassinteraction,theteacher"smaindutyistoorganizeandplansuitableactivitiestokeeptheinteractiongoing.Ininteraction,heneedstohelpthelearnersandofferthempositivefeedback.

212、Students"communicativecompetencecomesfromconsequentnegotiationofmeaning.Therefore,theteachershouldtrytosupplystudentswithmoreopportunitiestocommunicateinclass.Asthesayinggoes,practicemakesperfect.Learners’spokenEnglishproductionLiesinactiveinteraction.Onlywhenlearnersareprovidedwithsufficientopportunitiestouselanguagecantheyimprove

213、theircommunicativecompetence.Inoralclass,teacher-studentinteractionisnecessary.Student-studentinteractionismoreimportant.Weshouldalwayskeepinmindthatinoralclass,learnersarethesubjectsoflearning.Therefore,thefocusoforalclassshouldnodoubtbeonlearner-centeredmethodandactivities.Toencouragelearners’autonomouslearning,learner-contentinteract

214、ionshouldalsobestressed.4.2.3.4PromotingActivitiesoutsidetheClassroomAllthatneedtobepointedouthereisthat“languageteaching”ismorewidelyinterpretedthan“instructingalanguageclass”.Formalinstructionormethodsoftrainingareincluded;soareindividualizedinstruction,self-study,computer-assistedinstruction,andtheuseofmedia,suchasradioortelevision.L

215、ikewise,thesupportingactivities,suchasthepreparationofteachingmaterials,activitiesinsideoroutsidetheclassroomaswellasmakingthenecessaryadministrativeprovisioninsideoroutsideaneducationalsystem–theyallfallundertheconceptofteaching.Sometimesitisarguedthatinformalmethodsofde-schooling,usingthelanguageinunplanned38nsituations,teachlanguage

216、smoreeffectivelythanformalclassroominstruction.AccordingtoKrashen’stheory,thelevelofproficiencyforlearnerstolearnandmastertheirtargetlanguagedependsonthequantityandqualityastotheircontactandacceptancedegreeofthatlanguage.Sufficientcomprehensibleinputisthekeyfactorinthisprocess.Besides,theaspectsofinteresting,relevant,quantity,notgrammat

217、icallysequenced,filterlevel,toprovidetoolsforconversationalmanagementalsoplayveryimportantrole.Thefollowingaresomeactivitiessuitableforthestudentstodoinjuniorhighschool:(1)Telephoneconversations.Whentherearespeakersofthedesiredforeignlanguagelivingnearby,itcanbehelpfultoarrangephonefriends.Aforeignnationalisaskedtostrikeupanacquaintance

218、withoneortwoorthreeindividuallearnersandtomakeregularphonecalls–howeverbrieftheymayhavetobeatfirst–onceaweek,twiceamonth,oratwhateverintervalismostconvenient.(2)Englishcorner.Englishislearntmostlyintheclassroom.It’srarelyusedindailycommunicationbystudents,butEnglishacquisitionrequiresmuchpractice.Withoutmuchcommunicationpractice,thereis

219、onfeedback,andthiswillhinderfromprogressing.Englishcornerisagoodmeanstoreachthispurpose.Englishcorners,heldingrassyareasorgardensoncampusonceortwiceaweek,isatimeforstudentstomeettogetherforthepurposeofspeakingEnglish.NearlyalluniversitieshaveEnglishcorners,maybesometopicsarepostedinadvance,andstudentsfromalldepartmentsareencouragedtoatt

220、end.TheycanpracticetheiroralEnglishinanon-threateningatmosphere,EnglishcornerhastheenvironmentwherestudentsareforcedtospeakEnglish,andsoitisagreatbenefittoimprovetheiroralEnglish.It’sanopportunitytoputtheirlearningintopractice.Alltheout-of-classresourcesandactivitiesaretheexpansionandcomplementofin-classteachingandactivities.Insuchaproc

221、ess,relativelylightandfreeatmosphereiscreated,students’eyesightarebroadened,theirabilityoflanguageperformanceisimproved,knowledgelearntinclassareconsolidated,theinsufficiencyofclasshoursismadeup,asaresult,itplaysanimmeasurableroleinEnglishlearningaswellasEnglishteaching.Itsdevelopmentprovidesachallengeforthein-classteaching,and39nthere

222、forepromotesandgreatlyinfluencestheclassroomteaching.4.3DetailedAnalysisofCAinJuniorSchoolIntheabovesection,theauthorgivesageneraldiscussionaboutapplyingCAinjuniorhighschooloralclasses.HeretheauthorwillfurtheranalyzetheproblemofemployingCAinspeakingclassforjuniorhighschoolstudents.Theanalysisincludestwoaspects:thecommunicativeactivities

223、adoptedinjuniorhighschoolandthemajorformsofcommunicativeactivitiesusedinjuniorhighschool.4.3.1CommunicativeActivitiesAdoptedinJuniorSchoolCommunicativeactivitiesthatcanbeusedincommunicativelessonsmainlyincludetwotypes:“functionalcommunicationactivities”and“socialinteractionactivities”.Tobespecific,functionalcommunicationactivitiesrefert

224、osuchtasksaslearnerscomparingpicturesbypointingoutsimilaritiesanddifferences,discoveringmissingfeaturesinamap,onelearnerbehindascreengivinginstructionstoanotherlearnerandsoon.Asforsocialinteractionactivities,conversationanddiscussionsession,dialoguesandrole-plays,improvisationanddebateswillbeinvolved.Nowadays,differentactivitiesareadopt

225、edinjuniorhighschool,whichcanmotivatestudents’creativitiesandimagination.Onepointneedstobepointedoutisthateffectiveinteractiveactivitiesshouldbemanipulative,meaningfulandcommunicativesothatthelearnerscanbeinvolvedinusingEnglishforavarietyofcommunicativepurposes.Inthefollowingsection,theauthorintendstodiscusssomeclassroomactivitiesusedin

226、China.Alltheseactivitiesaremeaningfulforstudentsinjuniorhighschool,andteacherscanapplytheseactivitiestotheirteachingprocess.4.3.2MajorFormsofCommunicativeActivitiesUsedinJuniorSchoolTherearemanyformsofcommunicativeactivitiesthatcanbeemployedinjuniorhighschoolspeakingclasses.Heretheauthoronlyliststwo,whichareprovedtobeparticularlyeffecti

227、veinthepresentstudy.40n4.3.2.1PairWorkPairworkseemstobeaneffectiveactivitybecauseitcanincreasestheamountofstudentspracticeimmediately.Ithelpsthestudentsuselanguageandencouragesthemtoco-operatewitheachother,whichisveryimportantfortheatmosphereoftheclassandforthemotivationitgivestolearnwithotherpeople.Inthiscase,theteachernolongerplaysar

228、oleasacontroller,sothestudentscanhelpeachotherlearnlanguageaswellasuselanguage.Byusingpairwork,thestudentscanpracticelanguageuseandjointlearning.However,pairworkisnotaperfectwayofpracticinglanguage.Itsurelyhascertainproblemswithpairwork.Acommonproblemisthattheteachersarealwaysworriedabouttheuseofthestudents’nativelanguageinmonolingualgr

229、oups.Usually,studentsonlyuseEnglishonlyiftheyaremotivatedtodosoandtheteacherneedstoexplainwhatthereasonfortheactivityis.Anotherproblemisincorrectnessinpairwork.Wehaverepeatedlyemphasizedthataccuracyisnottheonlystandardtojudgelearningby;communicativeefficiencyisessentiallyimportantandpairworkfocusesonsuchefficiency.Howthestudentsareputin

230、topairsisanotherquestionneedstobeanswered.Theteacherswillhavetodecidewhethertheyshouldputstrongstudentswithweakones,orwhethertheyshouldvarythecombinationofthepairsindifferentclasses.Someteachersadoptarandomapproachtoputtingstudentsintopairswhileothersmixstudentswhodonotnecessarilysittogetherdeliberately.Tillnow,therestillseemstobenorese

231、archtogiveascientificanswertotheidealcombinationforeitherpairsorgroups.Generallyspeaking,pairworkisaformofactivitythatcanincreasestudentparticipationandlanguageuse.Actually,itcanbeusedforagreatnumberofactivitieswhetherinspeaking,writing,readingorlistening.4.3.2.2GroupWorkGroupworkisacooperativeactivitywhichreferstothatmorethanthreestude

232、ntsdoarole-play,discussatopicorsolveaproblem.Thestudentstendtoparticipatemoreequallyingroupssincetheyarearrangedinawholeclass.Accordingtothetotalnumberofstudentsintheclass,thesizeofthegroupsisworkedout.41nGenerallyspeaking,thesmallerthesizeofagroup,themoreeffectivetheactivitywillbe.Iftherearetoomanystudentsinonegroup,nomatterhowwell-de

233、signedacommunicativeactivityisinaclass,thestudentsofrelativelylowproficiencyarelikelytolosethechancestotalkinthegroup.Usually,theteachersorganizegroupsintwoways.Onewayisthatstudentsofdifferentlanguageproficiencyarearrangedintoonegroup;inthiscasethestrongstudentscanhelptherelativelyweakstudents.Theotherwayisthatstudentsofmoreorlessthesam

234、eabilityareputintoonegroupsothatweakstudentswillnotbeinhibitedbythestrongonesandtheteacherisalsoendowedfreedomtopayhisorherattentiontothosewhoneedhelpmost.Groupworkleadstointeractivelanguage.Intheso-calledtraditionallanguageclasses,teacher-talkcontrolsthewholeclass.While,groupworkishelpfulinsolvingtheproblemofclassesthataretoolargetooff

235、ermanyopportunitiestospeak.AccordingtoBrown(1994:173),smallgroups“provideopportunitiesforstudentinitiation,fromfacetofacegivingandtaking,forpracticesinnegotiationofmeaning,forextendedconversationalexchange,andforstudents’adoptionofrolesthatwouldotherwisebeimpossible”.Ingroupwork,theteacherssometimesworryaboutnoiseandindisciplineofthestu

236、dentsifthesettingtaskistoodifficultortooeasytobecompleted.Theymayalsoworryaboutthestudents’attitudesduringtheactivityorthestudentsmayusetheirnativelanguageintheactivity.Thestudents’mistakeswillbereinforcedinsmallgroupssometimes,becausetheteacherscan’tcontrolallgroupsonceatime,theywon’tgetanopportunitytocorrectmistakesmadebythestudents.S

237、omestudentsliketoworkbythemselves.Theteachersshouldbeawareofsuchpreferencestosomeextent.42nChapter5Conclusion5.1MajorFindingsoftheResearchThereareavarietyoffactorsthataccountfororalability.Communicativeactivitiesprovideauthenticsettingsforstudentstolearnanduselanguage.Itiseffectiveinlanguagelearning,becausestudentsarerequiredtocommunic

238、atewitheachother.ThispaperhasparticularlyfocusedonthecommunicativeactivitiesinspeakingclasseswhicharebasedonCommunicativeApproach.Atthebeginningofthethesis,theauthorbrieflyreviewedthehistoryandrelatedtheoriesofCommunicativeApproach.Accordingtothepreviousresearches,communicativeactivitiesareabletoarousetheinterestofstudents.Thereforethey

239、canimprovestudents’speakingability.Theprimarypurposeofconductingtheresearchwastodetermineifcommunicativeactivitieswouldbehelpfulforjuniorhighschoolstudentsintheiroralability.ThemostimportantfindingofthisresearchisthattheCA-orientedteachingmethodsdohavepositiveeffectsonstudents’spokenabilityinjuniorhighschool,andthestudentswarmlywelcomet

240、hiskindofteachingmethods.TheimportanceofapplyingtheCAinspokenEnglishclassesisfullyconfirmedbythefactthatstudentsareengagedinthecommunicativeactivitieswithapparententhusiasm.Theuseofcommunicativeactivitieshasaddedatremendousnumberofpossibilitiesforcommunicationpractice.Asaresult,studentsarenolongerlimitedtothekindoflanguageusedbythelearn

241、ersinaclassroom:theycanbeshopkeepersorspies,grandparentsandchildren;theycanbeboldorfrightened,theycanbeangryoramused;theycanbeonashiporonamoon.Thelanguagecancorrespondinglyvaryaccordingtothesettingsimagined,thepersonality,attitudesormoodofthecharacter,orthecommunicativefunctionsorpurposerequired.Accordingtotheresultofthequestionnaire,th

242、eauthoralsofindsthatthestudentsinjuniorhighschoolprefertheactivitieswhichneedmoreinteractions,eitherbetweenstudentsandteacher(guessinggamessometimes),oramongpeers43n(role-playing).Thedesignofclassroomactivitiesisquitevitaltotheeffectoforalproficiencyimprovement.Withthethirdresearchquestion,theauthorfinallyproposesseveralsuggestionsthat

243、areobtainedfromtheresearch-introducingauthenticmaterialintoclass,enhancinginteractionsbetweenteacherandstudents,creatinganinteractiveenvironmentamongpeersandpromotingotheractivitiesoutsidetheclassroom.ThesefoursuggestionsbasedonCommunicativeApproachareparticularlyinspiringfortheteacherswhoworkinjuniorhighschool.Comparedwiththetraditiona

244、lteachingapproaches,whichconsiderstheformsofsentencesasitsmajorpurposeforteaching,thetheoryofCAstressesthecontextinwhichanutteranceoccurs.Communicativeactivitiesthathelpthelearnerstospeakareaccepted.Learnerslearnhowtouselanguagecreatively,respondinginauthenticcommunicativesituations.5.2LimitationsofthePresentThesisTherearestillsomeprobl

245、emswhicharouseduringtheresearch,suchasimperfectoftheexperimentdesignandtimelimited.Thestudentsinvestigatedwereconfinedinoneclassoneschool,andthesamplesizeistoosmall-only64studentswereinvolved.Themodelsettingsinthespeakingclassarealittledifferentfromtherealsituationsinlife.Allthesefactorsmayinfluencetheresultoftheresearch.Communicativeac

246、tivitiesareextremelyeffectivetechniqueifthestudentsareconfidentandcooperative;butmoreinhabitedoranxiousstudentsfinditdifficultandsometimesevenembarrassing.5.3RecommendationsforFutureResearchesCommunicativeactivitiesbasedonCAarelearning-by-doingexperiment,andlearnersshouldbeactiveconstructorsoftheirownknowledge.Fortunately,theauthor’sstu

247、dentsgreatlyenjoyedcommunicativeactivities.ThefindingsfromtheexperimentprovideaviewthatcommunicativeactivitiesbasedonCAareveryeffectiveinimprovingstudents’speaking.LearninghowtocommunicateeffectivelyandaccuratelyinEnglishisalong-termproject.Thewriterhopes,bothforthe44nstudentsandfortheteacher,thisexperienceonapplyingcommunicativeapproa

248、chcanleadtotheoptimumforfurtherdevelopmenttothenextstage.Thesamestudycanbereplicatedwithmorejuniorschoolstudents,sinceresearchesonthisaspectarerelativelyrare.ThefindingscanpresentuswithacompletepictureofjuniorschoolEnglishlearninginChina.Thesamestudycanalsobeconductedonseniorhighschoolstudentsandprimaryschoolstudents.Bycarryingoutaserie

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264、gamon.1983.[50]顾曰国,英语教学法。北京:外语教学与研究出版社。1998。[51]胡文仲,文化与交际。北京:外语教学与研究出版社。1994。[52]胡文仲,基础英语教学论文集。北京:外语教学与研究出版社。1985。[53]胡壮磷,刘润清,李延福,语言学教程。北京:北京大学出版社。1988。[54]徐金灿,徐洁怡,《文化对广告的影响》心理科学进展(11)。2003。[55]许伟杰,胡颖琳,《中西方思维差异在电视广告中的体现》新闻界(2)。2007。[56]李筱菊,语言测试科学与艺术。长沙:湖南教育出版。1997。[57]廖晓青,《任务型教学的理论基础和课堂实践》。中小学外语教学(11)。2001。[58]束定芳,现在外语教学——理论、实践与方法。上海:上海

265、外语教育出版社。1996。[59]王立非,现代外语教学论。上海:上海教育出版社。2000。[60]文秋芳,英语口语测试与教学。上海:上海外语教育出版社。1999。[61]章兼中,外语教育学。杭州:浙江教育出版。1999。49nAppendixQuestionnaireabouttheFeasibilityandEffectsofCAinClass这是一个关于交际法在初中生英语口语教学中应用的调查问卷。请同学们根据这一个月来学习口语的感受,认真回答。谢谢你的参与。1.你觉得通过四周的学习,自己的口语有了显著的提高么(1)是(2)不清楚(3)不是2.你喜欢这一个月以来老师在口语课上所使用的教学方法么?(1)喜欢(2)一般(3)不喜欢3.这次的口语教学方式,是否跟以往有很

266、大的不同?(1)是(2)不清楚(3)不是4.课堂上的活动,你最喜欢那个?(1)角色扮演(2)同学讨论,交换想法(3)讲故事(4)交际游戏(如猜谜游戏等)5.课堂上的活动,你最不喜欢哪个?(1)角色扮演(2)同学讨论,交换想法(3)讲故事(4)交际游戏(如猜谜游戏等)6.你人为什么方法最能提高自己的口语水平?为什么?(1)角色扮演(2)大声朗读(3)讲故事(4)交际游戏(如猜谜游戏等)(5)听英文歌曲(6)有主题的辩论50nAcknowledgementsInpreparingthisthesis,IamindebtedtoallmyteachersinEnglishDepartmentoftheForeignLanguageCollegewhohavetaughtm

267、epostgraduatecourses,towhomIowemuchofmyknowledgeinlinguistics,andespeciallyinappliedlinguistics.Iamdeeplygratefultomysupervisor,ProfessorBuYukun,forhisvaluableguidance,continuousencouragementandinsightfulreadingsofthisthesis.Wordsarenotenoughtoexpressmysincerethanksforhisassistanceinguidingtheresearch.Ialsowouldliketopresentmysinceregra

268、titudetoProfessorQu,ProfessorYi,ProfessorZhou,ProfessorZhao,ProfessorTang,ProfessorZhuandProfessorCui,fromwhomIhavelearntalot.Theirlecturesandinstructionshaveprovidedmewithgreathelpforthecreationofthisthesis.Inaddition,Iwouldliketoexpressspecialthankstomybelovedparentsandmyfriends,whohavegivenmyceaselesssupportduringthewritingofthisthes

269、is.51n摘要交际法在初中英语口语教学中的应用研究改革开放为中国人民创造了更多的机会与来自世界各地的人进行交流与沟通。英语是世界上使用最广泛的语言。英语口语作为主要的交流手段,越来越受到广泛的关注。因此,英语教学应该把重点放在培养学生用英语进行交流的实用语言技能上。长期以来,我国初中生英语教学在应试教育的压力下,忽视了学生语言实际运用能力的培养,导致学生在使用英语时,语言技能、语言知识、文化意识等方面无法与时代的发展相匹配,尤其在口语方面差强人意。交际法强调发挥学生先天具有的学习和使用语言的能力,以学生为中心,培养学生运用语言的交际能力。因此,如何在课堂教学中开展交际教学已成为初中英语教学中值得深入研究的课题。交际法,又称为交际语言教学,是以社会语言学为理论基础,

270、以培养交际能力为目的的一种教学方法体系。其教学原则是让学生在交际中使用语言,学习语言,检验自己的语言,并在交际中修正语言错误,最后达到真正准确的程度。其主要核心思想是把语言作为一种交际工具来教授、学习、使用,以便使学生能用所学的语言与人交流,获取信息。本研究试图在交际法理论指导下探索能够提高中学生英语口语能力的有效方法。本研究以交际教学法理论为理论框架,进行了实验,解决了我们提出的三个研究问题。本研究旨在分析影响初中英语教学的因素,讨论有效进行初中英语口语教学的策略与方法。通过实验分析和对老师的采访,探讨这些具体交际教学法口语教学策略培养学生英语口语能力的有效性程度。通过调查问卷分析学生是否喜欢这些交际教学法英语口语教学方法,喜欢哪些交际教学法活动。本文主要有三个研究

271、问题:(1)交际法对初中英语口语教学能否起到积极作用?(2)在初中英语口语课堂上,哪一类交际活动更受学生欢迎?1n(3)提高学生的口语能力最有效的策略有哪些?该论文分为五个部分。第一章是论文的引言部分。在这一章中,作者阐述了学习英语的社会需求和初中英语口语教学的重要性,并概述了现存的英语口语教学问题以及在初中英语口语教学中应用交际教学法的目的和意义。第二章是文献综述部分,介绍了有关交际教学法的一些理论以及国内关于交际教学法研究的现状。作者首先介绍了交际教学法的基本定义、历史发展和主要特点。交际法产生于20世纪70年代的英国,当时英语语言教学领域正在发生重大变革。在此之前盛行的教学方法是包括语法翻译法和听说法在内的一些传统教学方法。在这些方法的指导下,语言学习被认为是

272、语言习惯的形成。运用这些方法的教学成果远远不能令人满意。因为在这种情况下,学生往往不能获得相应的实用技能,同时,学生的信心和潜力也有可能受到不同程度的损害。因此,传统的教学方法遭到了诸多语言学家和教育学者的质疑。许多语言学家认为,语言教学的重点应该在交际能力上面,而不应该仅仅强调对语言结构的掌握。交际法以培养交际能力为目标,强调在语言教学中开发学生的四种语言技能,重视培养学生的交际能力,即包括在各种场合下心理和口头上的反映能力。交际教学法在英语口语教学中有着非常重要的作用,在交际法指导下的语言教学中,教师通过对现实生活情景的模拟来设计课堂活动,把语言教学尽可能地与学生自身的环境和现实结合起来。这就不仅仅需要进行大纲里单一的活动,还需要设计一系列和学生日常生活紧密联系的

273、活动。这些活动不是独立的,它们有着内在的联系,并能使学生对此产生浓厚兴趣,加入到积极学习口语的队伍中来。除此之外,教师应该提供给学生一些可想象的、能遇见的场景、角色和任务,比如在大街上帮助一名外国游客。在本研究中,作者将展示一些交际教学法指导下的活动形式,诸如交换信息、角色扮演等。第三章介绍了本论文的研究方法,包括理论基础、研究问题、实验对象、实验工具、实验步骤以及数据的收集和整理。本研究所使用的方法包括问卷调查、课上观察以及实验后对老师和部分学生的访问。在第四章中,作者对问卷所得的数据和访问结果进行了细致的分析。通过分析,我们得出了一些调查结果和结论。通过对调查问卷结果的分析,我们发现,2n超过74%的学生认为他们的口语能力在实验过程中取得了较大的进步,其中一半以

274、上的学生承认他们口语情况改善的主要原因在于四个星期的实验。对于第二个问题,约80%的学生认为这些课堂活动非常有趣,它们使口语学习不再是一种负担,这与他们在以前英语课堂上的感受大不相同。这样看来,交际法指导下的教学方法受到了大多数学生的青睐。对于第三个问题,几乎每一个学生都承认,使用交际教学法期间,不同的教学活动产生的学习效果是不同的。通过上述分析,我们可以得出这样的结论:以交际法为指导的教学方法对初中学生的口语能力培养有着积极的作用,并受到学生的热烈欢迎。第五章是本文的结论,列举了本研究的主要发现和局限性,并对未来相关研究提出了一些建议。教师在使用交际教学法的过程中,应当着重考虑初中英语学习者的特点和中国特有的教育环境因素,才能达到更好的教学效果。交际法的核心是交换和

275、获取信息。交际教学法优越于传统教学方式之处在于交际法强调语言全面素质的提高和应用。要在应用中学习,在使用中掌握。交际法需要进一步与中国的教学环境和中国学习者的学习风格相结合,才能更好地为中国的外语教学服务。关键词:交际法,英语口语教学,初中3nAbstractAStudyofApplyingCAintoTeachingSpokenEnglishinJuniorHighSchoolSincethereformandopening-uppoliciesin1970s,Chinesepeopleareofferedmoreandmoreopportunitiestocommunicatewithpeoplefromallovertheworld.Especiallyaft

276、erChina’sentryintoWTO,theneedofpeople’sinvolvementintheinternationalcommunicationhasbeenincreasedquitesubstantially.Englishisthemostwidelyusedlanguageandplaysabigroleinglobalcommunication.ChinesepeopleareusingmoreEnglishthantheyusedto.TheultimategoalofforeignlanguageteachingofEnglishistocultivatetheEnglishlearners’communicativecompetenc

277、einthereal-lifesituation.ItisnecessaryfortheEnglishlanguageteachinginChinatofocusonthepromotionofEnglishcommunicativeability,especiallyinEnglishspeakingproficiency.CommunicativeApproach(CA),whichcanalsobecalledCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CAT),isanapproachtoforeignorsecondlanguageteaching,whichstressescommunicativecompetenceasthegoalof

278、languagelearning.CAregardshumanlanguageasamodeofsocialcommunicativebehaviorthatisalwayssituationallyconditionedandsubjecttovariations.ThemainpurposeofstudyingCAasanapproachistobuildupteachersandstudents’communicativeawarenessandenhancetheircommunicativecompetenceincludinglinguisticcompetence.Inthepresentthesis,theauthorplanstoexploreeff

279、ectivemethodstoimprovestudents’oralabilityinjuniorhighschool.Basedonthestudies,theauthorintendstoapplyCAtospokenEnglishteachingclasses.Afteranalyzingrelativetheoriesandcharacteristicsofjuniorhighschoolstudents,theauthorcarriesoutasimpleexperimenttotestifysomeofherideas.ThisresearchisaimedatfindingimplicationsfortheEnglishteachersinJunio

280、rHighSchoolonhowtofostertheoralabilityinstudentsandwhethertoimplementCAinfurtherspokenEnglishteaching.Through4ntheexperimentandtheinterviewwiththeteacherafterit,itwillbeinferredthatwhetherCAiseffectivetotrainstudents’speakingproficiencyandtowhatdegree.Throughanalyzingthequestionnairesaccomplishedbythechosenstudents,itwillbedrawnthatwhe

281、therthestudentsliketheapplicationofcommunicationactivities,whatkindofcommunicativeactivitiestheypreferandwhethertheyliketoexperienceCAintheirfurtherEnglishstudy.Therearemainlythreeresearchquestionsthattheauthorintendstoexploreintheresearch:(1)IsCAeffectiveinspokenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschool?(2)Whichofthemethodsusedinclassdothestud

282、entsprefer?(3)Whatareeffectivestrategiestoimprovethestudents’oralabilitythroughCAinjuniorhighschool?Thethesisisdividedintofiveparts.Chapter1istheoverallintroductionofthewholethesis,includingsocialrequirementoflearningEnglish,thenecessityofteachingspokenEnglishinjuniorhighschools,problemsexistinginspokenEnglishteachinginjuniorhighschoola

283、ndthepurposeandsignificanceoftheresearch.Chapter2istheliteraturereviewofrelatedtheories.Inthischapter,theauthorintroducestheoreticalbackgroundofspokenEnglishteaching,thedefinition,historicaldevelopmentandcharacteristicsofCommunicativeApproach.CommunicativeApproachoriginatedfromthemajorchangesinBritishlanguageteachingtraditionfromthebegi

284、nning1970s.Untilthen,traditionalteachingmethodssuchasGrammar-translationMethodandAudio-lingualMethodhadrepresentedthemajorapproachtothefieldofFLT.Inthesemethods,languagewastaughtthroughpracticinggrammarrulesandbasicstructureswiththetheoryofstructuralismandbehaviorismastheguidanceprinciples.Languagelearningwasconsideredasaformationofling

285、uistichabit,whichwassubjecttothemodelofstimulusandresponse,andthetheoryofreinforcementandassociation.Itisnodoubtthattheresultsofapplyingthesemethodswerefarfromsatisfactory.Becauseinsuchcaseslanguagelearnersoftenfailedtotransferskillsacquiredthroughtraditionalmethodstoreal5ncommunicativetasksoutsideclassroom.What’smore,itmightdoharmtost

286、udents’confidenceandpotentials.Consequently,thetheoreticalfoundationsoftraditionalmethodswerecalledintoquestionbywesternlinguistsinbothlanguagetheoryandlearningtheory.Manylinguistssawtheneedtofocuslanguageteachingoncommunicativeproficiencyratherthanonmeremasteryofstructures.Thescholarswhoadvocatedthisviewoflanguage,suchasChristopherCand

287、linandHenryWiddowson,drewontheworkofBritishfunctionallinguists(e.g.,JohnFirth,M.A.K.Halliday),Americanworkinsociolinguistics(e.g.,DellHymes,JohnGumperz,andWilliamLabov),aswellastheworkinphilosophy(e.g.,JohnAustinandJohnSearle).What’smore,theincreasinginterdependenceofEuropeancountriesresultedintheneedforgreatereffortstoteachadultsthemaj

288、orlanguagesoftheEuropeanCommonMarketandtheCouncilofEurope.ThelatterwasespeciallyactiveinpromotingthefoundationoftheInternationalAssociationofAppliedLinguistics,andindevelopingbettermethodsoflanguageteaching.Inthischapter,thetheoriesrelatedtoCAareexplicitlyintroduced.Thecommunicativeapproachintendstomakecommunicativecompetencethegoalofla

289、nguageteachinganddevelopproceduresfortheteachingoffourlanguageskillsthatacknowledgetheinterdependenceoflanguageandcommunication.CommunicativeApproachneedsbalancingwithotherteachingmethodstomakesurethatthecoverageoflanguagecomponentsisadequateandthosestudents’needsandexpectationsareincludedeventoachieveitsowngoalofcommunicativecompetence

290、.Butatleastitseescommunicationasadynamicsocialactivitytobeacquiredbyactiveparticipationbythestudents,makingaclearbreakinthisrespectfromtraditionalteachingmethods.InChapter3,theauthordiscussesthemethodologyofthethesis.Firstlytheauthorliststhethreeresearchquestions.Andthen,thesubjectsandtheinstrumentsarebrieflyintroduced.Theprocedureofthe

291、experimentanddatacollectionisillustratedinthefollowingpart.Theresearchconsistsofanexperiment,aquestionnaireandsomeinterviewswiththeteachersandstudents.Chapter4canbedividedintothreeparts:Firstly,theresearcheranalyzesthedatacollectedfromthequestionnaire.ThesecondpartisthegeneraldescriptionofapplyingCAinjuniorhighschool6noralclasses,inwhi

292、chthethreeresearchquestionsareaddressedonebyone.PartthreeisadetaileddiscussionabouttheproblemofemployingCAinjuniorhighschooloralclasses,whichincludesthecommunicativeactivitiesadoptedinjuniorhighschoolandthemajorformsofcommunicativeactivitiesusedinjuniorhighschool.Throughanalyzingthequestionnaires,aftertheexperiment,theauthorfindsthatmor

293、ethan74%ofthestudentssaythattheyfeeltheyhavemadesignificantprogressduringtheexperiment(theiranswerstothefirstquestionareYES),andnowcanspeakverywell,andmorethanhalfofthesestudentsadmitthattheirimprovementliesmainlyonthefourweeks’experimentaboutapplyingCAinspokenclass.Withthesecondquestion,about80%ofthestudentschooseYES,sincetheactivities

294、aresointerestingwhichmaketheclassesinterestinganddifferentfromtheonestheyhadbefore.Maybetheeffectsonsomeofthestudentsarenotasgreatastheothers;thiskindofteachingapproachisstillfavoredbymoststudents.ForquestionNo3,almosteverystudentadmitsthattheteachingapproach(CA)employedduringthefourweeksarequitedifferentfrombefore.Fromtheaboveanalysis,

295、theauthorcoulddrawtheconclusionthattheCA-orientedteachingmethodsdohavepositiveeffectsonstudents’spokenabilityinjuniorhighschool,andthestudentswarmlywelcomethiskindofteachingmethods.Chapter5istheconclusionofthethesis,includingimplicationsofthepresentthesisandsuggestionsforfutureresearches.TheessenceofCAisinformationobtainingandexchanging

296、.TheadvantageofCAteachingmethodsovertraditionalmethodsisthatitemphasizesmoreontheoverallimprovementoflanguageability.Tolearnanduselanguageinpracticeisoneofthemostsignificantwaysoflanguagelearning.TheauthorhopesthattheChineseeducatorscanintegrateCAwiththeparticulareducationenvironmentandthecharacteristicsoflanguagelearners,inordertomakem

297、orecontributionsinthefieldofforeignlanguageteachinginChina.KeyWords:CommunicativeApproach,spokenEnglishteaching,juniorhighschool7

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