交际教学法在轮机英语教学中的应用研究

ID:76191266

大小:1.25 MB

页数:66页

时间:2022-01-14

当前文档最多预览五页,下载文档查看全文

此文档下载收益归作者所有

温馨提示:
1. 部分包含数学公式或PPT动画的文件,查看预览时可能会显示错乱或异常,文件下载后无此问题,请放心下载。
2. 本文档由用户上传,版权归属用户,天天文库负责整理代发布。如果您对本文档版权有争议请及时联系客服。
3. 下载前请仔细阅读文档内容,确认文档内容符合您的需求后进行下载,若出现内容与标题不符可向本站投诉处理。
4. 下载文档时可能由于网络波动等原因无法下载或下载错误,付费完成后未能成功下载的用户请联系客服处理。
网站客服:3074922707
   教学法       应用研究   

《交际教学法在轮机英语教学中的应用研究》由会员上传分享,免费在线阅读,更多相关内容在学术论文-天天文库

1、nnn谨以此论文献给培养我的中国海洋大学外国语学院、导师张国教授以及给予我帮助的各位教师、同事和我最爱的家人---------张我友n交际教学法在轮机英语教学中的应用研究摘要为了适应不断发展的国际航运业要求,1995年国际海事组织(IMO)对《1978年海员培训、发证和值班标准国际公约》(STCW78)进行了全面修改,其中特别强调了“多国(民族)混合船员之间的交流(即外语能力)”。轮机英语是远洋运输船舶机舱部成员从事轮机工程业务所涉及并使用的专业语言。其教学成果直接关系到轮机部船员的质量和发展。轮机英语教学既属于特殊用途英语,又具

2、有普通英语的特点。以教师为中心的中国传统教学法重视语法和语篇讲解,而忽略了语言的运用和交流功能的训练,学生主动性和积极性未得到发挥。基于学生职业培养的需要,作者以20世纪70年代起源于英国的交际教学法为理论基础,对青岛远洋船员职业学院2010级轮机管理专业的两个班级,进行了一个学期的研究工作,旨在和传统教学法对比,研究交际教学法能否激发学生的英语兴趣,课堂教学过程中交际教学法的组织方式、注意事项,以期找到适合轮机专业学生的英语课堂模式。研究使用了测试、课堂观察、问卷三种手段。研究结果表明交际教学法在轮机英语教学中是一种可行的教学方法,它既

3、提高了语言的运用能力,又提高了专业英语知识的综合能力。在实践中,作者发现并提出了一些合理化的建议,为后续研究打下了基础。在职业教育蓬勃发展的今天,如何让英语发挥其交流服务功能将是特殊用途英语的研究方向。通过对交际教学法的研究和实践,可以看出CLT为轮机英语教学模式提供了可借鉴的经验,值得进一步的深入研究。期望本研究能唤起语言教学者对交际教学法的重视并在各自的教学过程中尝试新的语言教学方法。关键词:交际教学法;专门用途英语;轮机英语;英语教学nAStudyontheApplicationoftheCommunicativeLanguage

4、TeachingApproachinMarineEngineeringEnglishTeachingandLearningAbstractInordertomeettherequirementsofthecontinuousdevelopmentofmoderninternationalshippingindustry,theInternationalMaritimeOrganization(IMO)carriedoutanall-roundrevisionof“StandardsofTraining,CertificationandWa

5、tchkeepingforSeafarers1978”(STCW78)in1995,whichhasespeciallyemphasized“thecommunication(i.e.foreignlanguagecompetence)amongthemultinationalcrew”.MarineEngineeringEnglish(MEE)isthevacationallanguageusedbytheengineeringstaffonboardocean-goingvesselsindealingwiththemarineeng

6、ineeringbusiness.TheachievementofMEEteachingdirectlyaffectsthequalityanddevelopmentofengineeringofficers.MEEisabranchofEnglishforSpecialPurpose(ESP)andhasthecommoncharacteristicsofGeneralEnglish(GE).ThetraditionalMEEteachingapproachinChinawhichisteacher-centeredfocusesont

7、hegrammarandtextualexplanation,butneglectsthepacticesoflanguageapplicationandcommunicativefunction.Itgoesagainstthedevelopmentofstudents’initiativeandpassion.Basedontherequirementsofstudents’careereducation,thewritertooktheCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT)whichoriginated

8、inBritaininthe1970sasthetheoreticalbasisandcarriedoutthetests,classroomobservationandquestionnairesbasedonaterm’sinvestigationofthetwoclassesmajoringinMarineEngineeringatQingdaoOceanShippingMarinersCollege(QMC)inordertostudywhethertheCLTapproachcanstimulatetheinterestofst

9、udentsandfindouttheorganizationalways,mattersneedingattentionandtherightEnglishclassroomteachingmodelcomparedwiththetraditionalapproaches.TheresultshowsthatCLTisafeasiblewaytopromotenotonlythelanguageabilitybutthecomprehensiveprofessionabilityaswell.Inthisstudy,somereason

10、ablensuggestionsaremade,whicharebeneficialtoafollow-upstudy.Atpresent,thevacationaleducationisflourishing.ThenhowtodevelopthecommunicativeandservingfunctionofEnglishwillbetheresearchorientation.ThroughthedetailedstudyandpracticalapplicationofCLT,itdemonstratesthatCLToffe

11、rsthevaluableexperienceandisworthyoffurtherstudy.Thewriterhopesthatthethesiscancontributetoarousinglanguageteachers’attentiontoCLTandconstantlyattemptingthenewapproachesoflanguageteaching.Keywords:communicativelanguageteaching;Englishforspecialpurpose;engineeringEnglish;E

12、nglishteachingandlearningnContentsListofabbreviations...........................................................................................1ChapterOneIntroduction..................................................................................21.1BackgroundoftheStu

13、dy...................................................................................21.2ResearchQuestions............................................................................................41.3SignificanceoftheStudy................................................

14、...................................41.4OrganizationoftheThesis.................................................................................5ChapterTwoLiteratureReview.............................................................72.1MEE..................................

15、.................................................................................72.1.1EnglishforSpecialPurpose(ESP).........................................................72.1.2MarineEngineeringEnglish(MEE).......................................................82.1.3The

16、RequirementsofMEETeachingandLearningaccordingtoIMO..92.1.3.1WhatIsIMO..............................................................................92.1.3.2TheRequirementsConcerningSTCWConventionforSeafarer’sEnglishConversancy...............................................

17、...........102.2TraditionalApproachesinMEETeaching.......................................................112.3CommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT).....................................................132.3.1TheoriginofCLT......................................................

18、...........................142.3.2DefinitionofCLT..................................................................................142.3.3FeaturesofCLT....................................................................................152.3.4ResearchofCLT.................

19、..................................................................16ChapterThreeDesignoftheFrameworkofCLTtoMEE..................193.1Teacher’sRoles................................................................................................193.2Learner’sRoles..........

20、......................................................................................203.3MainFormsofCLTActivitiesinMEE............................................................20ChapterFourMethodology.................................................................244

21、.1DescriptionoftheResearch.............................................................................244.2Participants.......................................................................................................254.3InstrumentsandMethods.......................

22、..........................................................254.3.1PretestandPosttest...............................................................................254.3.2ClassroomObservation.........................................................................264.3.3Que

23、stionnaires.......................................................................................264.4ResearchProcedure..........................................................................................264.4.1PreparationforCLT......................................

24、........................................274.4.2TheImplementationofCLT..................................................................274.5DataCollection................................................................................................274.6DataAnalysisAppro

25、ach...................................................................................284.7ReliabilityandValidity....................................................................................28nChapterFiveResultsandDiscussion........................................

26、..........295.1DataAnalysis...................................................................................................295.1.1AnalysisofTests...................................................................................295.1.1.1AnalysisofWrittenTests..........

27、...............................................295.1.1.2AnalysisofOralTests..............................................................335.1.2AnalysisofClassroomObservation......................................................365.1.3AnalysisofQuestionnaires.............

28、......................................................385.1.3.1AnalysisofPre-questionnaire..................................................385.1.3.2AnalysisofPost-questionnaire.................................................405.2Discussion...............................

29、.........................................................................41ChapterSixConclusion.......................................................................436.1PedagogicalImplications..............................................................................

30、...436.1.1FeasibilityofImplementingCLTinMEETeaching.............................436.1.2SuggestionsforImplementingCLTinMEETeaching.........................456.1.2.1ThePrinciplesofImplementingCLTinMEETeaching.........456.1.2.2RecommendationsforImplementingCLTinMEETeaching.4

31、56.2LimitationsandFurtherResearch....................................................................476.2.1LimitationsofthePresentStudy...........................................................476.2.2SuggestionsforFurtherStudy............................................

32、..................48Bibliography........................................................................................49Appendices..........................................................................................52Acknowledgements................................

33、..............................................54Resume.................................................................................................55ArticlePublished.................................................................................56nListofabbreviation

34、sCLTCommunicativeLanguageTeachingEECEuropeanEconomicCommunityELTEnglishLanguageTeachingESPEnglishforSpecialPurposeGEGeneralEnglishIMOInternationalMaritimeOrganizationMEMarineEngineeringMEEMarineEngineeringEnglishNFSNotional-FunctionalSyllabusPSCPortStateControlPSCOPortSta

35、teControlOfficerQMCQingdaoOceanShippingMarinersCollegeSEDCStateEducationDevelopmentCommissionSTCWStandardsofTraining,CertificationandWatch-keepingforSeafarers1nChapterOneIntroduction1.1BackgroundoftheStudyWiththerapiddevelopmentoftheshippingindustryandthetrendofeconomicg

36、lobalization,Englishhasbeenrecognizedastheuniversalandofficiallanguageatsea.Inthecourseofoceanshipping,itisvitallyimportantforseafarerstocarryouttheeffectivecommunicationamongthoseonboardandbetweenshipandshore.Oneprofessionalresearchshowedthatover90%shipwrecksareman-made,

37、especiallyduetothelackofcommunicationeffectivenessandthepoorEnglishcompetence.In1994,aferrycollidedwithacontainershipinManilaBayandmorethan100peopleweredrownedandinthesameyear,aBalticferry,MSEstonia,capsizedoffthecoastofFinland,killing838people.In1987,aferrywashitbyanoilt

38、ankerandover4,000peopledied.Morerecently,inDecember2009,aGreekbulkcarriercaughtonfireandnineseafarersdiedinthisaccident.Asamatteroffact,anoceangoingvesselusuallycomprisesamultilingualcrewspeakingEnglishwithdifferentaccents,evenwithoutasinglenativeEnglishspeakingseaman;thu

39、sthegoodcommandofEnglish,includingoralEnglishandMarineEnglish(ME),isratherimportantandfundamentalforseafarers.TheSTCWConvention,whichstandsfortheInternationalConventiononStandardsofTrainingCertificationandWatchkeepingforSeafarers,hasformulatedtheregulationsandqualificatio

40、nstandardsformasters,deckandengineerofficersandtherelevantdepartments,shippingcompaniesandgovernments.ThetrainingandteachingofseafarersmustfollowthestandardofSTCWConvention.TheSTCWConvention(STCW78)wasfirstputforwardbyInternationalMaritimeOrganization(IMO)conferenceinLond

41、on,andcameintoforcein1984.TheConventionformulatedminimumstandardsrelatedtotraining,certificationandwatch-keepingforseafarers.Accordingtotheanalysisoftherecentaccidentsththhappeningatsea,tofollowthestepsofglobaleconomy,onJuly71995,the172nanniversaryofthesigningforSTCW,the

42、InternationalConventiononStandardsofTraining,CertificationandWatchkeepingforSeafarers,1978,amendedin1995,referredtoasSTCW95forshort,wasadoptedandtookeffectonFebruary1st,1997withthetransitionalperiodoffiveyears.TheSTCW95hasprovisionsconcerningtheEnglishlanguagerequirements

43、formarineengineeringofficers.TheofficersarerequiredtohavethecompetenceofusingEnglishinwrittenandoralformandtohaveadequateknowledgeoftheEnglishlanguagetouseengineeringpublicationsandtoperformengineeringduties.Italsolaysouttwocriteriaforevaluatingcompetence:firstly,theoffic

44、ersshouldbeabletointerpretEnglishlanguagepublicationsrelevanttotheirduties;secondly,theofficersshouldbeabletocommunicatewithothersinEnglishclearlyandbeunderstood.TheabovespecificationsshowclearlythattheSTCW95laysstressontheofficers’proficiencyinusingmarineengineeringEngli

45、sh.Therefore,itisimportantthattheChineselearnersofmarineengineeringEnglish(MEE)areabletocomprehendandproducejob-relatedEnglishcorrectlyandappropriately.Tobeacompetentseafarer,oneneedstohavecomprehensiveEnglishabilitycompletely,viz,thelistening,speaking,readingandwritingca

46、pabilities.Nowadays,thetrainingandteachingofMEEmostlyadoptsthetraditionalapproaches,whichpaymoreattentiontoteacher-centeredexplanation,professionalvocabularylearningandexercisesofitempool.SoaretheMEEReadingCourse,andeventheevaluationofMEEListeningandSpeakingCoursecarriedo

47、utbytheMarineBoardofthePeople’sRepublicofChina(PRC).Studentsonlyfocusontheexaminationofcertificateofseafarers.Therefore,theywillprobablyfaceuptothedifficultiesoflisteningandspeakingwhentheyhaveanintervieworwhentheyworkandliveonboard.Itisnotenoughtousetheoriginalteachingmo

48、detomeettheneedsofthetalentsforthesociety.Therefore,afterweanalyzedsometheoriessuchasbackground,featuresandprinciplesofCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT),weknewthatCLTcanimprovethestudents’Englishcommunicativeabilitytosomeextent.CLTbeganinBritaininthelate1960sasareplaceme

49、ntoftheearlierstructuralmethod,calledSituationalLanguageTeaching.CLTisateachingapproachthatisnotonlyto3nfosterlearners’languagecompetencebutalso,moreimportantly,tofostertheircommunicativecompetence,whichhasbeenbecomingsignificantinbothforeignlanguageresearchandteachingpr

50、acticesincethelatel980s.Itclaimsthatsocio-culturalcompetenceistheessenceoflanguageuse.1.2ResearchQuestionsThisstudytriestofindoutwhetherCLTapproachisavailableforMEEcoursefromEnglishteachingperspective.TheultimategoalofthestudyistoprovidesuggestionsforMEEteachinginChina.To

51、putitinaspecificway,wetrytoanswerthefollowingresearchquestionswithastudyatQingdaoOceanShippingMariner’sCollege(QMC),andthesequestionsarealsoservedasapracticalguidetotheresearchdesignanddataanalysis.Thesequestionsare:(l)Whetherornottherewillbeasignificantdifferenceintheach

52、ievementofEnglishlearningbetweenthesubjectswholearnEnglishinCLTclassroomandthesubjectswholearnEnglishthroughthetraditionalteachingmethod?(2)WhetherornottheCLTapproachcanstimulatestudents’interestandmotivationinlearningEnglish?(3)Whatdeservesourattentionintheimplementation

53、ofCLTinEnglishforMarineEngineeringclass?1.3SignificanceoftheStudyTheRevisedSyllabusforCollegeEnglishTeachingpointsoutthatteachingmethodhasadirectinfluenceonteachingquality.TeachersshouldadoptflexibleandeffectivemethodstoteachEnglish,onthebasisofdifferentstudentsandteachin

54、grequestsatthedifferentstages,sothatstudentscangetmaximalprofits.Atpresent,inMEEteachinginChinathetraditionalteachingmethodisstillused,whichisteacher-centeredandplacesstrongemphasisonindividualisticlearningandknowledgetransmission,andthereisaserioussituationthatmanystuden

55、tswhohavestudiedMEEformanyyears,butstillcannotcommunicatefluentlythoughtheyhavehadadequateknowledgeaboutmarineengineering(ME)andtechnicalterms4nconcerningME.ThiscurrentsituationgoesfarawayfromthereformrequirementsofcollegeEnglishteachingandsocialneeds.Consequently,MEEtea

56、chingisurgentlyinnovatedinordertomeettherequirementsoftheshippingcompaniesandSTCW.Theconflictbetweentheneedforqualifiedseafarersandthecurrentsituationofdeficientteachingapproachesandmethodsgivesrisetoseekingnewmeasuresforchange.CLTisanapproachthatintegrateslanguagelearnin

57、gwithcommunicationskills.Themeritsofthisapproachare:inCLTcourses,fourlanguageskills(listening,speaking,readingandwriting)aredeveloped.Studentsconcentratemoreontheusageoftargetlanguageandgetpromotedincommunicativecompetencebymeansofinteractionwithfellowclassmates,theteache

58、randthematerial.Inadditiontolanguageskills,cognitiveskillsarealsodeveloped,suchasreasoning,imagining,problemsolving,andsummarizing.ItiswellknownthatteachingapproachplaysanimportantroleinMEElearning.ThisthesisbycarryingouttheexperimentlastingforoneterminQingdaoOceanShippin

59、gMariner’sCollegeaimstofindouttheproblemsconcerningtheimplementationofCLTinMEEteachingandmeanwhileprovidesomesuggestions.Therefore,tostudytheapplicationofCLTtoMEEteachingwillcontributetothepromotionofEnglishteachinginmaritimeschoolsanduniversitiesandbesignificantinreality

60、inChina.ThisthesiswillalsocontributetotheresearchandteachingonESPinthefuture.1.4OrganizationoftheThesisThethesisconsistsofsixchapters.ChapterOneisabriefintroductiontothebackgroundoftheresearch,theresearchquestions,thesignificanceofthestudyandtheorganizationofthethesis.Cha

61、pterTwoistheliteraturereview,whichconstitutesthebriefdescriptionofMEEteaching,therelationshipbetweenMEEandESP,therelevanttheoryaboutCLT.ChapterThreeintroducesthedesignoftheFrameworkofCLTtoMEEapplication,includingthecomparativestudyofrolesaboutteacherandstudentandthemainfo

62、rmsofCLTapproach.Theabovetwochaptersarethetheoreticalfoundationsforthefollowingstudy.ChapterFourmainlyconcernsaboutthemethodologyoftheresearchincludingtheparticipants,theinstrumentsand5nmethods,theresearchprocedureandthedatecollection,dataanalysisapproachaswellastherelia

63、bilityandvalidityoftheresearch.ChapterFivefocusesontheanalysisofdatacollectedfromthetests,classroomobservationandquestionnaires.SPSSdogreathelptotheanalysis.ChapterSix,thelastpartofthethesis,isabouttheconclusionofthestudy,whichcontainssomepedagogicalimplications,limitatio

64、nsofthepresentstudyandsomesuggestionsforfurtherstudy.6nChapterTwoLiteratureReview2.1MEEMEE,whichmeansMarineEngineeringEnglish,belongstothefieldofEnglishforSpecialPurpose(ESP).MEEteachingandlearninghasthespecificandspecialpurposeservingforthetrainingofcompetentseafarersby

65、therulesofInternationalMaritimeOrganization(IMO).Judgingbythispoint,MEEteachingandlearningshouldbecarriedoutnotonlybytheruleofGeneralEnglish(GE),butalsobytheruleofESP.LookingattheteachingmethodsofMEEathome,itisjustfollowedbythetraditionalones,whateverteachersorstudents,th

66、eyonlycareaboutthecertificatesofseafarers.Duringtheirstudies,theyarespoon-fedandfocusontheexercisespassively.Accordingtotheexperimentsofcrewmembersonboardandtheoceanshippingcompanies,theabilityofcommunicatingandexpressingisvital.Soinheritingthegoodofthetraditionalmethodsa

67、ndexploringthenewapproachesandmakingthebestoftheadvantagesofCLTisthepurposeofthispart.2.1.1EnglishforSpecialPurpose(ESP)TheresearchofESPgotitsstartinthe1960’s.ItstheoreticalbasisistheFunctionalismtheory(Richards,J.C.&T.S.Rodgesr,1986/2000:17)andthe“register”theorycanb

68、eitsdirectdrivingforce(Halliday,Mclntosh&Strevens1964;Strevens1977;Gregory&Carroll1978).Tosomeextent,ESPisnowconsideredasabroadanddiversefieldofEnglishlanguageteaching(ELT)fieldaroundtheworld.Theterm“EnglishforSpecialPurpose(ESP)”isgenerallyusedtorefertotheteachin

69、gofEnglishforaclearlyutilitarianpurpose.Thispurposeisusuallydefinedwithreferencetosomeoccupationalrequirement,e.g.forinternationaltradebusinessman,professionalairlinepilots,captain,engineer,etc.InELT,ESPhastwoimportantcharacteristicswhichinfluenceprofoundlythemethodologyo

70、fmaterialsproductionandofclassroomactivities:firstly,theassociationofESPteachingwith7nadultlearners,oratleastlearnersatthepost-secondarylevelofgeneraleducation;andsecondly,ESPplaysanimportantauxiliaryrolethatEnglishlanguageiscalledupontoinsuchcases.Languagelearnersexpect

71、Englishcanbeameansoffurtheringtheirspecialisteducationorameansofefficientlyperformingasocialorworkingrole,thatistosay,aworkingroleasascientist,technologist,technician,etc.Therefore,wecanconcludethatESPisavaluableapproachtolanguageteachingwhichaimsattheneedsofparticularlea

72、rners.Nowathome,ESPisgrowingatafastpace.Theobviousconflictbetweenthedemandofimmediateaction—thatis,forspecialsyllabusestobeprepared,specialmaterialstobewritten,andstaffstoberecruitedwhowillteachtothosespecializedgoals—andthelackofteachingexperiencesandapproaches.According

73、ly,manyinadequatecoursesarebeingtaughtbyteacherswhoarepuzzledathowtheyshouldcarryout;meanwhile,theessentialdevelopmentworkisbeingungentlypursuedinthehopeofcatchingupwiththedemandbeforetoomuchdamageisdonebyunsatisfactoryresponsestothedemandforimmediateaction.Inaddition,ESP

74、,likeanyformoflanguageteaching,isprimarilyconcernedwithlearning.However,untilnowESPhaspaidscantattentiontohowpeoplelearn,insteaditfocusesonthequestionofwhatpeoplelearn.ThoughESPisagreatapproachprovidingveryimportantinsightsintothenatureofspecificlanguageneeds,ESPmustbefou

75、ndedontheprinciplesoflearning,anditiswiththisviewthatalearning-centeredapproachisproposedtoESP.2.1.2MarineEngineeringEnglish(MEE)MarineEngineeringEnglish(MEE)belongstoMaritimeEnglishwhichisakindofEnglishforSpecificPurposes(ESP)world-widelyusedintheocean-shippingindustry.M

76、aritimeEnglishgenerallyconsistsofNavigationEnglish,whichisusedbythecrewmembersoftheDeckDepartmentonboard,andMarineEngineeringEnglish,whichisusedbythecrewmembersoftheEngineDepartment.MEEistheworkinglanguageoftheengineeringofficersonboardocean-going8nvessels.Itisrelatedtoa

77、lmostallaspectsoftheseafarers’workandlifeonboard,includingtheenginemachineryoperation(i.e.thestructure,workingprinciples,operationandtrouble-shootingofthemainandauxiliarymachineryandequipmentonboard),internationalmaritimeregulations,conventionsandPSC(PortStateControl)insp

78、ections,effectivecommunicationwiththebridge,contactwiththeshoreserviceandmarineorganizationpersonnel,andthewritingofthelogbook,listsandreports,etc.MEEisnotonlygeneralEnglish,butakindofESP.Theultimategoaloflanguageisforinformationtransmissionandcommunication.MEEteachingand

79、learningshouldfocusonthispointandimprovethestudents’communicationskills.2.1.3TheRequirementsofMEETeachingandLearningaccordingtoIMO2.1.3.1WhatIsIMOIMOistheabbreviationofInternationalMaritimeOrganization,whichisbestknownforbeingresponsiblefortheadoptionofmaritimelegislation

80、withspecialattentiontointernationalcrewstandards,establishedbyaninternationalconferenceinGenevain1948.Fromthetimewhenthefirstconventionwasmade,over40conventionsandprotocolshavebeenadoptedandmostofthemhavebeenamendedbyIMOinordertoensurethattheconventionscancatchupwiththech

81、angesoftheworldshippingenvironment.ThesignificanceofIMOiskeepingsafershipping,cleaneroceansandintegrateinternationalstandards.TheheadquartersofIMOisinLondonwhichconsistsoftwoinstitutions:anAssemblyandaCouncil.Ithasfivemaincommittees:theMaritimeSafetycommittee,LegalCommitt

82、ee,MarineEnvironmentProtectionCommittee,TechnicalCo-operationCommitteeandtheFacilitationCommittee.TheassemblygovernsalltheorganizationsofIMOandallstatesareincluded.Itisheldonceeverytwoyearsinregularsessionsandresponsibleforapprovingoftheworkingprogram,votingthebudgetandde

83、terminingthefinancialarrangementsoftheorganization.Thecouncilisalsoelectedbytheassembly.9nThecouncilconsistsof32statememberselectedbytheassemblyforatwo-yearterm.ItsresponsibilitiesmainlyincludesupervisingtheworkofIMOandadjustingtheactivitiesoftheorgans,takingthedraftwork

84、sandbudgetintoconsideration,acceptingthereportsandproposalsandputtingforwardtotheAssemblyapplicablecommentsandrecommendations,appointingthegeneralsecretaryandparticipatingintheagreementsordiscussionsrelatedtotherelationshipofthestatemembersanddifferentorganizations.IMOist

85、hecentralpivotoftheworldshippingsafetyandenvironmentalprotection.Itsregulationsandrulesaretheindicatorofthenavigationalteachingandtraining.2.1.3.2TheRequirementsConcerningSTCWConventionforSeafarer’sEnglishConversancySTCWisshortfortheInternationalConventiononTraining,Certi

86、ficationandWatchkeepingforSeafarers.STCWwasadoptedbythetheinternationalconferenceonJuly7,1978andenteredintoforceonApril28,1984.TheintentionofSTCWistoillustratethestandardsoftheseafarers’competence,introducerelevantqualificationrequirementsfortrainersandauditors,provideeff

87、ectivemechanismofitsprovisionsandpermitgreaterflexibilityinalignmentoffunctionsonboard.STCWConventionattemptstoestablishtheglobalminimumprofessionalstandardsforseafarers,whichwouldimprovesafetyandcompetitivepositionsofthecompaniesthatcomefromthedevelopingcountries.Compare

88、dwiththepreviousstandardsoftraining,certificationandwatchkeepingofofficers,thestandardsbecomemuchhigherandarefurtherraised.Althoughthemajorityofcountriesacceptedandimplementedtheconventions,theconventionsdidnotachieveitspurposebythelate1980s.Onthecontrary,itwasgraduallylo

89、singitscredibilitywhileitsacceptancewaswidened.Themainreasonseemedtobethelackofprecisioninitsstandards.Manypartiesandcountriesvariedtheinterpretationofstandardsandfailedtoeffectivelyadministerandenforceconventionrequirements.Inviewofthedisadvantagesofthefistedition,sugges

90、tedbyMrWilliamA.O’Neil,thesecretaryofGeneralofIMO,theintegratedreviewwascarriedoutinJune10ntoJuly,1995.Thenewrevisioncontainsmassesofimprovementscomparingwiththeoriginalversion.Theformeronlyhadabroadoutlineofthecertificationsystem;however,thenewonehasmuchclearerandconcis

91、erproceduresforissuingcertificatesofcompetenceandfortheirrecognition.Theterm“competence”hasbeenindirectlydefinedasphrase“incorporatingprescribedstandardsorlevelsofknowledge,understandinganddemonstratedskill”.TherequirementsofEnglishlanguageforengineersonboardhavealsobeenc

92、learlydefined,namely:EngineeringwatchkeeperwillberequiredtodemonstrateabilityadequatetointerpretengineeringpublicationswritteninEnglishandtospeakclearlyandcomprehensivelywhenmakingcommunicationneededtoperformengineeringduties.Itisprecisethattheaboverequirementslaymuchstre

93、ssonthelanguagecompetenceandcommunicativeabilityoftheseafarers.ComparedwiththeSTCW78,theSTCW95emphasizessomuchtheEnglishpracticingskills;theyarelistening,speaking,readingandwriting.TheteachingandtrainingofMEEpaysmoreattentiontothecommunicativepractice.Inthatcondition,ther

94、eismuchscopeforCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT).2.2TraditionalApproachesinMEETeachingTheMEEteachinglaysstressesonthefundamentalskillsofEnglishandthebroadknowledgeofmarineengineeringEnglish.ItisaspecialandspecificoneofsecondlanguageteachingcombiningGeneralEnglishwiththeM

95、EE.ThestudyandresearchesonMEEteachinghavebeenconductedbytherulesofSTCWConventionfromIMOOrganizationthroughvarioustheories,andbroughtaboutanumberofdifferentopinions.Manyspecialistsbelievethatcommunicativeskillsarevitaltothecommandofreadingandwritingskills.AsfortheMEEteachi

96、ng,IMOsetupaModelCourse,includingexplanation,exerciseandcorrection.Itstressestheimportanceofgrammarrules,massesofexercises,anddifferentcorrection.Thismethodishardlycarriedoutbecauseitissubjecttothelowlevelofthestudents.Forteachers,theyprefertheso-calledsimple-convenientme

97、thodforMEEteaching,11nnamely“theGrammar-TranslationMethod”.Underthiscircumstance,theteachingisteacher-centeredandstudentsarespoon-fed.Whileteachersreadandtranslatethetextandmaterial,studentsdoitinthesameway.TakingQingdaoOceanShippingMarine’sCollege(QMC)forexample,ourcoll

98、egestudentsdonothaveaverysolidEnglishfoundation;thismethodonlyleadsthestudentstomasterthespecializedknowledgeandEnglishgrammar.Consequently,thestudentscanreadthetextbythebookandunderstandthesurfacemeaningofthetext.Unfortunately,theydonotgrasptherealmeaningandcouldnotexpre

99、sstheknowledgetheyhavereadandknown,couldnotexplaintheoperatingprinciples,andevencouldnotcommunicatewithothercrewmemberscorrectlyandeffectively.Thatiswhysonumerousshipwrecksandmarineaccidentshappen.ThemaintraditionalapproachesofMEEteachingareasfollows:(1)Grammar-translatio

100、napproachbelievesthatthelearner’soralabilityreliesonthepracticesofreadingandwritingofthetargetlanguage.Beforetryingtheconversation,thestudentneedspossessextensiveknowledgeoftargetlanguageandgreatvocabulary,sothathe/shecantalkfreelyandcomfortablywithwhathe/shehaslearned.Th

101、ismethodmaybesuitableforthelearnerswhoseEnglishlevelisabithigherandwhosebasicknowledgeisabitsolider.Whereasfortheyoungerlearnerswithlessknowledgeofthelanguageskills,theyaremorefamiliarwithoralpresentationratherthangraphicalpresentationofinformation,sogrammar-translationap

102、proachignoresthedifferencesofdifferentlevelsoflearnersandfailstoemphasizetheimportanceoforalcommunication.Englishdefinitelyistheofficiallanguageforseafarersonboard.TheGrammar-TranslationMethodinMEEteachingisnotgoodforencouragingthestudentstothinkinEnglishstyleandnotgoodto

103、improvetheircommunicativecompetence.(2)Audio-lingualapproachutilizesspeakingimitation,listeninganddrilltechniques.Theyfirmlybelievethatlearningisastimulus-responseprocessuptoamechanicalstatus,aslearnersoftennaturallyimitateandrepeatedlypracticeconversationsofagiventopic.I

104、nthiscase,languagelearningworksasafixedandinflexibleprocess,sothatstudentscannothavethechancetoexchangetheirown12nideasfreelyandopenly.Consequently,speakingcompetenceisakindofpracticebutnotameansofcommunication.(3)Situationalapproachsprangupfromthe1930sto1960sbyBritishli

105、nguists.Itdeclaresthatacquisitionoflanguageshouldbecombinedwithspecificsituation,namelyhabit-learningtheory.Thisapproachconsistsofguidedrepletionandsubstitutionactivitiesthatincludechorusrepetition,dictation,drills,readingandwritingtasks.Butinthe1980s,thisapproachwasquest

106、ionedforthenegligenceoftheeffectofsituationaleventsonthelanguageform.Studentsbecomenotactiveduetoitslackofinterest.(4)Structuralapproachconcentratesonthestructureofthetargetlanguageandbehaviorism—awell-developedAmericanpsychology.Itbelievesthathumanbeingsareorganismswhich

107、haveawiderepertoireofdifferentbehaviors.Tosumup,theaboveapproacheshavealittleeffectundersomecases.Buttheauthorthinksthattheypaylittleattentiontothecommunicativefunction—theultimategoaloflanguage.EspeciallyforMEE,theworkinglanguageforseafarers,itisnotforacademicresearch,bu

108、tforthecommunication,soCLTistherightchoice.Atthismoment,theteachingmethodinMEEteachingisbeingimproved,suchastheteachersaretryingtorenewthestyletoshiftfromteacher-centeredtolearner-centeredapproach,thesyllabusdesignandteachingmaterialsareimproved,whicharegoodtothepractical

109、exerciseandtheimprovementofcomprehensiveabilities.Amongthenumerousapproaches,CommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT)isoneoftheeffectivewaystopursueandpractice,whichcorrespondwiththerulesofSTCW95andaccordswiththeactualrequirementsofOceanShippingIndustry.2.3CommunicativeLanguage

110、Teaching(CLT)WiththedevelopmentofEnglishteachingtheories,despitethedebatesofdifferentapproaches,communicativeskillshavebecomeoneofthemostsignificantfactorsinevaluatingstudents’proficiencyinEnglishandtheefficiencyofEnglish.Althoughnoagreementhasbeengainedoverall,CLThasplay

111、edagreatrolein13nEnglishteaching.Throughyearsofresearchandevolution,CLTisattractingteachers’attentiontoimproveEnglishlearners’communicativeskills.2.3.1TheoriginofCLTTheCommunicativeLanguageTeachingemergedinthelate1960sinBritain,developedinthe1970sandspreadworldwideinthee

112、arly1980s.Comparativelyspeaking,thisperiod,fromthe1960stothe1980s,hasoftenbeencalledas“TheAgeofMethods”,duringwhichnumerouslanguageteachingmethodssprangup.SituationalLanguageTeachingevolvedintheUnitedKingdom,whileAudio-LingualismemergedintheUnitedStates.Inthe1980s,thoseme

113、thodsbegantobeovershadowedbyCLT,whichismoreinteractiveforlanguageteaching.CLTapproachcanbedefinedastheproductofeducatorsandlinguistswhohavebecomedissatisfiedwiththeaudiolingualandgrammar-translationmethodsofL2instruction.Theyfeltdeeplythatlearners’languagelearningwasnotre

114、alisticenough.Theforeignlanguagelearnerswerenotsurehowtocommunicateusinganappropriatelanguageundersomesocialcircumstances.2.3.2DefinitionofCLTCLTmakesgooduseofauthenticsituationsinwhichteachers’rolesareassistants.Theteachersfitupareal-liferolethatstudentsliketoengagein.Un

115、liketheaudiolingualmethodandgrammar-translationteaching,whichrelyonsentencesrepetitionandpatterndrills,grammarexplanationandtestpractice,theCLTapproachcreatesthedifferentsituationsfromclasstoclass,accordingtotheknowledgethatstudentslearnedandtheworkingenvironment.Students

116、desiretocommunicateusefultopicsinmeaningfulways.Manylinguistshavemadesogreateffortstoexploreanddevelopitsconceptandtheories.Richards&Rodgers(1986:66)consideredthatCLTisanapproachthataimsto(a)makecommunicativecompetencethegoaloflanguageteachingand(b)developproceduresfo

117、rtheteachingofthefivelanguageskillsthatacknowledgethe14nindependenceoflanguageandcommunication.InLittlewool’s(1981:1)mind,“oneofthemostcharacteristicfeaturesoftheCommunicativeLanguageTeachingisthatitpayssystematicattentiontofunctionalaswellasstructuralaspectsoflanguage.”

118、Onthewhole,CLTemphasizesthatthemostimportantfunctionoflanguageiscommunication.Thelanguageteachingshouldfocusontheunbrokenprocedures:thesettingoflearningtargets,thedefinitionofasyllabus,thedevelopmentoflearningmaterials,theelaborationandimplementationofclassroomactivities,

119、andtheassessmentoflearners’progress.Hence,thegoaloflanguagelearningistoacquirethecompetenceforperformingeffectivecommunication.MargieS.Berns,anexpertinthefieldofCLT,claimedthat“languageisinteraction;itisinterpersonalactivityandhasaclearrelationshipwithsociety.Inthislight,

120、languagestudyhastolookattheuse(function)oflanguageincontext,bothitslinguisticcontext(whatisutteredbeforeandafteragivenpieceofdiscourse)anditssocial,orsituational,context(whoisspeaking,whattheirsocialrolesare,whytheyhavecometogethertospeak)”(Berns,1984:5).2.3.3FeaturesofCL

121、TFromtheabove-mentionedCLT’sorigin,definitionsandstatements,researchersconcludedthreecommonfeaturesofCLTasfollows:(1)Theultimategoaloflanguageteachingisgainingcommunicativecompetence.(2)CLTapproachemphasizesstronglylearner’sreal-lifelanguageslearning,includingtherealtime,

122、therealrole,therealevent,especiallytherealcommunicativemeaningandideas.(3)Interactionisthevitalfactorforthelearners.Itisafluentandexchangingprocessofideas,notafixedprocessofstructuralusingandcombinationofvocabularyandsentences.Itisabroadproductionofideas,arangeofinformati

123、onsources.15n2.3.4ResearchofCLTAllthetime,researchersmightinterprettheCLTindifferentversions.Commontoall,however,CLTisatheoryoflanguageteachingthatoriginatedfromlanguagecommunicationandlanguageuse.CLTdefinitelyconcentratesoncommunicativefunctionandcontextualfactors.Itsho

124、uldbelearner-centeredandexperience-basedanditshouldbelearnedbypracticinginmeaningfulcommunication.TheCommunicativeLanguageTeachingapproachappearedinthelate1960sinBritain,developedinthe1970sandspreadallovertheworldintheearly1980s.Atthebeginningofthe1970s,alongwiththesettin

125、g-upofEuropeanEconomicCommunity(EEC),theinteractionoftheculturalandeconomicfieldinEEC,especiallythepeople’scommunication,becamemoreandmorefrequent,andthelanguagebarrierfollowedandbecamethebiggestblockamongthem.SoCLTwastheproductofthesocialneedsinordertosatisfythecommunica

126、tiverequirements.ButitisveryfunnythatoneofthecharacteristicsofCLTisdifferentfromotherteachingapproaches.Thatisthecomprehensionisvariousaccordingtothedifferencesofunderstanding(LiYujun,2001).In1972,aBritishlinguist,D.A.Wilkins,madeatotallynewsyllabusknownasNotional-Functio

127、nalSyllabus(NFS).Inthissyllabus,“theinnovativefeatureswereitsfocusoncommunicativemeaningsratherthanongrammaticalstructures”(HuZhuanglin,2003:625).Wilkins’creativeproposalofanotionalandfunctionaldefinitionoflanguagecontributedgreatlytotheCLT.Atthesametime,DellHymes,anAmeri

128、cansociolinguist,pointedoutthatthegoaloflanguageteachingistodevelopcommunicativecompetencewhicharousedinterestfrommoreandmorelinguistsandlanguageteachersin1972.HistheoryunderplayedthetheoreticalbasisoftheCLTapproach.Therewith,Richards&RodgersdevelopedtheCLTtheory.They

129、thoughtthatCLTisanapproachthataimsto(a)makecommunicativecompetencethegoaloflanguageteachingand(b)developproceduresfortheteachingofthefivelanguageskillsthatacknowledgetheindependenceoflanguageandcommunication(Richards&Rodgers,1986:66).Littlewood(1981:1)stated,“Oneofthe

130、mostcharacteristicfeaturesoftheCLTisthatitpayssystematic16nattentiontofunctionalaswellasstructuralaspectsoflanguage.”SinceHymesproposedthethoughtofcommunicativecompetence,theCLTtheoryhasbeenexpandedwidelyanddifferenttypesofcompetencieshavebeenproposed.Intheearly1980s,Can

131、aleandSwainwereanothertworepresentativeswhogavethefinaldescriptionofCommunicativeCompetence.Theypresentedfourdimensionsofthat:grammaticalcompetence,socio-linguisticcompetence,discoursecompetenceandstrategiccompetence.LiYujun(2001)thoughtthattheresearchofCLTinChinacanbedev

132、idedintothreeperiods:1)thelate1970stothemiddleof1980s,2)thelate1980s,3)fromthe1990stillnow.ThefirstperiodwastheintroductionperiodofCLTandthesecondonewasthereceptionperiodofCLTwhichwasmarkedbythecommunicativeteachingtheoryenteringintothesyllabusofcollegesanduniversitiesand

133、thethirdonewasthedevelopingstagewhichisbecomingrational.Inthelate1970s,manyscholarsattemptedtointroduceCLTintoChina.CandlinandHuWenzhongfirstbroughtthisapproachhome,andthenSunLiandXinBindidtheresearchandstatedthetheoryofCLT.Inthelate1980s,CLTtheorywasacceptedastheguidingi

134、dedogyofforeignlanguageteachingandbecameoneofthemostimportantteachingapproachesathome.Atthesametime,somenewsyllabusandnewtextbooksweremadeandcodified,suchastheNewEnglishCourse(LiGuanyi,1987);theCommunicativeEnglish(LiXiaoju,1987);English(HuangCidong,1987).Atthesametime,Sh

135、iBaohuiconductedtheresearchofapplicationofCLTapproach.HereafterCLTapproachgraduallyofferedsomebeneficialhelptotheEnglishteachinginChina.SinceCLTtheorywasintroducedintoChina,therearemanydifferentopinionsthatCLTisaneffectivewayforChina(forinstance,LiXiaoju,1984;WangYuying,2

136、002;LiaoXiaoqing,2004)anditisnotthebestchoiceforEnglishlearners(forinstance,HuGuangwei,2002).Despitethedifferentvoices,CLTgotitsfirstachievementintheearly1990s.TheStateEducationDevelopmentCommission(SEDC)in1992establishedafunctionalsyllabusandsetthegoalofcommunicativeteac

137、hingandlistedthefunctionsofCLTtobetaughtinschools.ThenewlyrevisedsyllabusadvocatedthattheEnglishresearchersshouldfocusonthemodernlanguageteaching17ntheoryanddeeplydiscusstherealpurposeoflanguage.ItwasahistoricalmomentthatCLTgainedsomuchattentionandhadsuchaprominentpositi

138、on.Fromthatmomenton,manyEnglishteachersdevotedthemselvestoexploringthenewseriesoftextbooksonthebasisofCLTtheories.Andnow,thepassionofCLTresearchisheatingupfollowingtheissueofStandardofEnglishCurriculum.AsaproponentofCLTapproach,IfirmlythinkthatCLTapproachabstractstheultim

139、ategoaloflanguageandpaysmoreattentiontotheneedsofmostofEnglishlearners.IconsiderthatCLTcouldbepracticableinnon-Englishenvironment.18nChapterThreeDesignoftheFrameworkofCLTtoMEEInactualpracticesofCLTtoMEEteaching,somekeyfactorsmustbefocusedon.Theyaretherolesofteachersandle

140、arners,therequirementofthestudents,thedifferentcommunicativeactivities,theadequatematerials,andtheteachingattachments.Onthebasisofthesefactors,teachingsamplesforeachunitshouldbemade.CLTapproachaimstointegratealltheteachingresourcesandmethodstocreateasituationalenvironment

141、andimprovesstudents’communicativeskills.3.1Teacher’sRolesInatraditionalclassroom,itisdominatedbyteachers.Theteachersplayadefinitelyactiverole,andstudentsarejustpassivereceivers.Thelearner’smindisseenasanemptyvaultintowhichapprovedkonwledgeisdeposited(Ford&Leclere,2000

142、).Withoutdoubt,students’creativity,autonomy,confidence,competence,andself-esteemarerestricted.Infact,inCLTclassroom,theteachersplaymultiplerolesasaguide,anassessor,aparticipant,andanorganizer.Theirroleisnottoteachknowledgebuttoprovideopportunitiesforstudentstobuilditup.He

143、nce,theteachers’rolesdifferaccordingtothedifferentneedsofstudentsineachclass.Withthisteachingapproach,itdoesnotmeanthattheleadershipoftheteachercanbeignored.Student-centeredlearningcannotbecarriedoutwithoutteachers’direction.Insuchkindofclass,theteachershouldpayattentiont

144、o:(1)Tochooseappropriatematerialsandorganizethemwellbeforetheclass,whichisthebasicstage.(2)Toseizetheinterestofstudents’learningandstimulatetheintrinsicmotivation—thedesireofworkandSeafarerCertificate.(3)TopreparetheeffectiveCLTactivities,suchasrole-play,groupwork,spotint

145、erpretation,scenariosimulationtraining,responsibilityassignmentandresearchgroups,etc.(4)Tocontrolandsupervisetheprocessandencouragestudentsto19ncommunicateandimitatetheworkingconditionactively.(5)Tohelpstudentsdevelopthecommunicativeskills,includingtheoptionsoflanguage,t

146、hedifferentsituations,thedifferentcustoms,thedifferencesofdailyconversationsandworkinglanguagesandsoon.3.2Learner’sRolesInnavigationalcolleges,MEEteachingisonebranchofESP,whichownsitsspecialpurpose.Forstudentsofnavigationalmajor,theyareinneedofpreparingthemselvesfortheexa

147、minationofMarineEnglish(ME)fortheSeafarerCertificate,applicationofworkinglanguage(English)andcareerdevelopment.Sothelearners’rolesare:Tocopewiththenewknowledgewhichtheyarelearningbyusingwhattheyhavealreadyknown.(1)Tocatchandcomprehendtheteachers’pedagogicalpurposesofthecl

148、assroomactivities.(2)TosetuptherightattitudethatEnglishislearnedratherthantaught.(3)Tomasterwhattheyhavelearnedandtostudyactivelythenewinformationbythemselves.(4)Toformacompletesystemofworkinglanguageandimprovetheiroralproficiencyconsciously.3.3MainFormsofCLTActivitiesinM

149、EERole-playGenerally,role-playofMEEisamainformofCLTaimingtocreateasituationthoselearnersoftenencounterinthelifeonboard.WhethertheteachingofMarineEnglishReadingCourseortheteachingofMarineEnglishListeningandSpeakingCourse,theyareallrelatedtothepracticalapplication.Onboard,i

150、tisdividedintotwodepartments:thedeckdepartmentandtheengineeringdepartment.The“roles”on20nboardcanbe:Captain,officers,engineers,sailor,able-bodiedmotorman,etc.Asanengineer,heneedstoworkwiththedeckdepartment,portstatecontrolofficer(PSCO),andtheshippingcompany.Theyhavemany“

151、roles”and“responsibilities”.Forthisseason,role-playoccupiesanimportantpositioninMEEteaching,andembodiesthecombinationofCLTandMEE.Forinstance,studentscanperformaschiefengineerofashipandaPSCO.Afterboardingtheship,thechiefengineer,theheadoftheengineeringdepartment,isresponsi

152、bleformeetingtheofficerandinspectingthemainengines,theauxiliaryengine,theworkingconditionoftheengineroom,therelevantfilesanddocuments,theoilrecords,etc.Inthiscase,fluentandclearcommunicationisquiteimportantfortheinspectionofPSC.Theengineersmustbegreatlyawareoftheprofessio

153、naltermsandcommunicativeskills.Bythiskindofrole-playpractice,thestudentsareacquaintedwiththiscondition.Moreimportantly,studentscanachievethegoalofsituationalpracticeandknowledgeapplication.Ofcourse,fordifferentMEEcourses,thespecificproceduresaredifferent.Theteacher,asagui

154、de,shouldsolvethefundamentalproblemsandassignmissionstoencouragestudentstoworktogether.PracticeontheSpotThemajorofEngineeringinNavigationalCollegesmainlymakescontactwithallkindsofhugemachinery,suchasmainengine,auxiliaryengine,generators,filters,oily-waterseparator,boilers

155、andsoon.Therefore,practiceonthespotisessentialforstudents.Inthisway,theteachingofMEEcanuniteCLTandgivefullplaytoCLTsinceeverystudenthasthechancetoexpresstheoperatingprinciplesinEnglishanddiscussthequestionsandsolvetheproblemsingroupsonthespot.Theteacherscreateanengineerin

156、gEnglishenvironment,andnaturallythestudentsimprovetheircompetenceofcommunicativeskills.Comparedwiththetraditionalapproach—teacher-centeredexplanation,practiceonthespoteffectivelyinterestthestudentsandinnovatetheCLTtheory.PictureTalkPictureTalkisanecessarysupplementforPrac

157、ticeontheSpot.Toimitatesomescenesofaship,theteacherofferssomepicturesonboardandstudentsaresuggested21ntodescribethepictureandstimulatetheimagination.Forinstance:(1)Pleasestatewhattheyaredoingonthepicture.Picture3-1Thekeypoint:PSCInspection.(2)Pleasenametheequipmentanddes

158、cribeitsworkingprinciples.Picture3-2Thekeypoint:theoily-waterseparatorGroupWorkGroupworkisakindofteachingactivitywhichisinfavourofcultivatingstudentstogooncommunicationproperlyandfluently.Groupworkusuallyhastwoways:pairworkandmultiplework.Pairworkhasthreeforms:openpairwhi

159、chiscarriedoutbytwostudentsinclass,closepairwhichhappensbetweendeskmatesandflexiblepairwhichisfreetobuildupandmuchmoreinterestingbecauseoffreeoption.CLTapproachshouldfollowthesteps:imitateatfirstandapplylater,22nmechanicallyatfirstandmakeflexibleuselater,speechtrainingat

160、firstandcommunicationtraininglater.InMEEclasses,openpairissuitedforpreliminarycommunicationactivities,includingexplanationoflanguagepoints,patterndrillsandquestionanswering.Onthebasisofopenpair,closepairandflexiblepairwhicharefullycommunicativeactivitiescanbeusedcreativel

161、y.Theteacher’sroleisjustaguidewhoisresponsibleforlisteningandtakingcareoftheerrorsthatstudentsmake.Generally,however,students’pairworkshouldgoonsmoothlyandshouldnotbeinterrupted.23nChapterFourMethodology4.1DescriptionoftheResearchInChapterTwo,thebasicconceptsofCLTanditst

162、heoreticalfoundationhavebeenstated.InviewoftherequestsofEnglishcompetencyfromIMO,thetheoryofCLTmaypalyaguidingroleintheaspectsoftheselectionandcompilationofteachingmaterials,theformationofEnglishsyllabuses,especiallytheteachingapproachesinMEEteaching.Foralongperiod,manyEn

163、glishteachersthinkwishfullythataforeignlanguagelearnerwillhavethecompetenceatMEEaslongashegraspsthebasiclanguagepointssuchasvocabulary,grammar,phoneticsandsomespecialterms.Sointhepastandatpresent,theteachingofMEEbasicallyaimsathelpingstudentsmasterthelanguagepointsandform

164、alinguisticsystem.Withrespecttothiscondition,Widdowson(1979:12)madeastatement:Acommonassumptionseemstobethatifyouteachthelinguisticsystem,usewilltakecareofitself,thatonceyouteach,say,howtocomposeadeclarativesentence,thenthelearnerwillautomaticallybeabletodefine,illustrate

165、,classify,quality,describe,report—inshort,willbeabletoperformrhetoricalactsofotherswithoutmuchdifficulty.Butasamatteroffact,thestudentstaughtbythetraditionalapproachesusuallyareshortofEnglishlisteningandspeakingcompetence.TheemergenceofCLTapproachistheoutcomewhichdevotesi

166、tselftothechangingofteachingmethodsandtheimprovingofEnglishcompetence.Throughthestudytheauthorattemptstofindouttheanswerstothefollowingquestions:(1)WhetherornottherewillbeasignificantachievementonMEEteachingandlearningbetweenthesubjectswholearnEnglishinaCLTenvironmentandt

167、hesubjectswholearnEnglishbythetraditionalmethod?(2)WhetherornottheCLTapproachcanstimulatestudents’motivationinMEElearning?(3)WhatshouldwefocusonintheimplementationofCLTforMEEteaching?24nInthispaper,theauthorchoosesthreeinstruments—questionnaire,testandclasssurvey.Sinceev

168、eryinstrumenthasitslimitations,thethreeinstrumentscouldensuretheprecision,eliminatesbiasandgainsitscredibility.4.2ParticipantsTheseparticipantsformtwoclasses(totally80juniors)inQingdaoOceanShippingMariner’sCollege(QMC)andeachclasshas40studentsaccordingtotheruleofChina’sMa

169、ritimeAuthority.AllthestudentsmajorinEngineeringManagementandhavebeenstudyingEnglishfortwoyearsinQMC,includingoneandahalfyears’collegeEnglishandsixmonths’MEElearning.Thisisthebeginningoftheirfifthterm.Inthisterm,theywillattendeighthours’Englishlessonsfor15weeks.Inordertoc

170、arryouttheexperimentvalidly,twoclasseswhosescorerangeisverysimilarinthediagnostictestatthebeginningofthistermwereselectedrandomly.Thepretestresultshowednosignificantdifferencesbetweenthetwoclasses.OneclasswaschosenastheExperimentalClasswhoseteachingapproachisCLTintheresea

171、rch,whiletheotherclassservedastheControlledClasswhichstillcontinuesthecoursewiththetraditionalteachingapproach.Thetwoclasseshavethesameteachingmaterials,thesameformationofEnglishsyllabusesandthesameexperiencedteacherswhohavebeenteachingMEEover12years,butdifferentteachinga

172、pproaches—theCLTapproachandthetraditionalapproach.4.3InstrumentsandMethods4.3.1PretestandPosttestPretestandposttestarethequantitativeinstruments.TheexperimentwascarriedoutforthefifthtermfromSept,2012toJan,2013.BothpretestandposttestfollowthemodelofEnglishassessmentfortheC

173、ompetencyCertificatesofSeafarers.Theyconsistedoftwopatterns:writtentestsandoraltests,includinglistening,vocabulary&structure,readingcomprehension,writingandoraltests.Atthebeginningofthe25nfifthterm,theEnglishDepartmentofQMCorganizedadiagnostictestasthepretestandatthe

174、endofthisterm,thefinalexaminationservedastheposttestfortheconvenience.Thefullmarksofallthetestsare100points.Bycomparingthescoresoftwotests,wecanobviouslyfindoutwhatproficiencyandachievementsthestudentshavemadebydifferentteachingapproaches.4.3.2ClassroomObservationClassroo

175、mobservationismainlyresponsiblefortherecordingsofthetimedistributedtoteachers’guidingandstudents’participation,thedetailedteachingmethodsimplementedbythetwoteachers,thenumbersofstudentswhotakepartintheclassroomactivities,theperformancesofstudentsandthedisadvantagesofthete

176、achingmethods.4.3.3QuestionnairesQuestionnaireisakindofqualitativeinstrumenttocollectsystematicinformationinthestudyonlanguagelearners’assessmentabouttheirclassroomteaching.Inthisexperiment,theauthordesignedtwoquestionnaires:thefirstonewasperformedbeforetheexperimentforth

177、eexperimentalgroupandthesecondonewasconductedaftertheexperimentinordertocollectthestudents’viewsontheCLTapproach.Asawhole,thesetwoquestionnaireswereexpectedtocollectrelevantinformation,suchaslearners’attitudetowardstheMEEstudy,themotivationforlearningEnglish,thematerialst

178、heylearnedandsomeotherrelevantinformation.Teachersneededtostateclearlythepurposeandthegeneralnatureofthequestionnairesandthedatawasanonymous.BytheLikertScale,theitemsonthequestionnairesweredesignedasA“stronglyagree”,B“agree”,C“Idonotknow”,D“disagree”,“stronglydisagree”.St

179、udentswereorderedtoanswerthequestionsauthentically.4.4ResearchProcedureThestudywasconductedover15weeksatQingdaoOceanShippingMariner’s26nCollege(QMC)duringthefirstsemesterof2012-2013academicyear.4.4.1PreparationforCLTAlthoughallthesubjectsinthestudyhavebeenlearningGEovern

180、ineyearandhavelearnedcollegeEnglishfortwoyearsandarepreparingfortheExaminationoftheCompetencyCertificatesofSeafarers.Theywereveryusedtothetraditionalteachingmethodswhichwereteacher-centeredwhiletheyknewlittleaboutCLT.Forthisreason,itwasquitenecessarytodothepreparationwork

181、beforethestudy.ThepreparationmainlyincludedtheexplanationofwhatCLTis,whattherolesofteacherandstudentareinclass,whattheplanofthisstudyis,etc.4.4.2TheImplementationofCLTTheteacherneededtomaketheteachingplanbasedontheteachingmaterial,theteachingsyllabusandtherequirementofthe

182、competencyexaminationforseafarers.TheteacherdraftedmodelsforMEEteachingcoursesincludingassignments,waysofcooperation,stimuli-presentingmodeinclassessuchasthepresentationatthebeginning,interchangeactivities,groupworkandproblem-solvingprocess.Allinall,therolesoftheteacheran

183、dthesubjectsmustbedefinedandallfactorsshouldbetakenintoconsideration.4.5DataCollectionInthisstudy,twokindsofdatawerecollected.Onewascollectedthroughthewrittentestandtheoraltest,andtheotherwasobtainedbythequestionnairesurvey.Afterthedatacollection,theresearcherdidthecounti

184、ngjobafterward.TheclassobservationaimedtotakenotesoffeedbackofthesubjectsandfoundoutthestrengthsandtheweaknessesofCLT.27n4.6DataAnalysisApproachAfterthedatawascollected,itwascalculatedandanalyzedthroughtheStatisticalPackageforSocialScience(SPSS).Analysisoftheabovedataaim

185、edtocomparethescores.TheIndependentSamplesT-testinSPSSwasusedtocheckwhethertherewereanysignificantdifferencesbetweenthescoresoftheExperimentalClassandtheControlledClass.4.7ReliabilityandValidityAstheguiderandtheparticipant,theteacher’sabilityandstudent’squalitywillaffectt

186、heresultoftheresearch.Inordertodecreasetheuncertainfactors,theresearcherheldapretestamongtheeightclassesofGrade2010whosemajorisME.Fromtheeightclasses,twowhosemeansoresonoralandwrittentestwere81.775and80.750,75.375and74.350respectivelywereselectedastheExperimentalClassandt

187、heControlledClasswiththeverycloseMEElevel.Theallocationoftheteacherisanotherimportantfactor.WiththesupportofChairmanofForeignLanguageDepartment,twoexperiencedteacherswhobothhaveover12years’teachingexperiencewasassignedtotheE-classandC-class.Meanwhile,theexaminationwascarr

188、iedoutstrictlyandpapercheckingwaslookedoverunifiedly.Theeliminationofthetwofactorsinterferringtheresultcanmakethedatamorereliableandvalid.28nChapterFiveResultsandDiscussionThisstudyfocusedonthecombinationdegreeofCLTforMEEteachingbyanalyzingthedataofwrittenandoraltests.Th

189、erelevantdatawasputintothecomputerandanalyzedwithSPSS13.0includingMeans,Standarddeviation,Variance,Independent-samplesT-Test,andPaired-samplesT-TestandT-value.5.1DataAnalysis5.1.1AnalysisofTests5.1.1.1AnalysisofWrittenTestsTheresearcherattemptedtocomparethescoresofthewrit

190、tenpretestandposttestbetweentheE-classandtheC-class.Thesignificancelevelwassetat0.05.Byhorizontalandlengthwayscomparison,wecandrawtheconclusionwhetherthereisthesignificancebetweenthetwoclasses.Table5-1TheWrittenTestScoreBeforeTheExperiment(E-Class)number123456789101112131

191、4151617181920Score8083726789775381767583908872759072617293number2122232425262728293031323334353637383940Score5677795265758375657786847573688584678753Table5-2TheWrittenTestScoreAfterTheExperiment(E-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score898879778483667885798895937

192、7859179686895number2122232425262728293031323334353637383940Score668678627678828768859287817774878865965729nTable5-3TheWrittenTestScoreBeforeTheExperiment(C-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score9083646567848368805776717368577783907574number212223242526272829303

193、1323334353637383940Score8078696878795366748682768078745981787773Table5-4TheWrittenTestScoreAfterTheExperiment(C-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score9182687366868169816074737369618080917677number2122232425262728293031323334353637383940Score838271748182556876898

194、6808376756681818075Table5-5StatisticalDataoftable5.1-table5.4E-classbeforeE-classafterC-classbeforeC-classafterN40404040Mean75.375080.475074.350076.3750Std.Deviation10.637839.724378.789718.19533Variance113.16394.56377.25967.163Table5-6TheAchievementAnalysisofE-classandC-c

195、lass(beforetheexperiment)Levene"sTestforEqualityt-testforEqualityofMeansofVariances95%ConfidenceSig.MeanStd.ErrorIntervaloftheFSig.tdf(2-tailed)DifferenceDifferenceDifferenceLowerUpper30nEqualvariances.953.332.47078.6401.025002.18187-3.318775.36877assumedEqualvarian

196、ces.47075.322.6401.025002.18187-3.321215.37121notassumedAsTable5-5andTable5-6show,theAchievementAnalysiswascarriedoutbytheIndependent-samplesT-TestaimingtofindoutwhethertherewassignificantdifferencebetweentheE-classandC-classbeforetheexperiment.TheresultshowedtheSig.Value

197、>0.05,whichmeanstherewasnosignificantdifferenceontheAchievementandtheleveloftheE-classandtheC-classbeforetheexperimentcorrespondedtoeachother.Table5-7TheAchievementAnalysisofE-class(comparisonbeforetheexperimentandaftertheexperiment)PairedDifferences95%ConfidenceStd.Inter

198、valoftheStd.ErrorDifferenceSig.MeanDeviationMeanLowerUppertdf(2-tailed)eclassbefore--5.100004.39580.69504-6.50585-3.69415-7.33839.000eclassafterTable5-8TheAchievementAnalysisofC-class(comparisonbeforetheexperimentandaftertheexperiment)PairedDifferencesStd.Std.tSig.(2-tail

199、ed)MeanDeviationErrordf95%Confidence31IntervalofthenDifferenceMeanLowerUppereclassbefore-2.025002.33686.36949-2.77236-1.27764-5.48139.000-eclassafterAsTable5-7andTable5-8show,byutilizingtheParied-samplesT-Test,theresearchertriedtofindoutwhethertheachievementshadthesignif

200、icantdifferenceaftertheteachingandlearningofaterm.WecannoticethattheSig.Value<0.05forbothE-classandC-class,thatistosay,theachievementshadsignificantdifferenceandtheachievementsofboththeE-classandC-classhavebeenimprovedafteraterm’sstudy.Table5-9TheAchievementAnalysisofE-cl

201、assandC-class(aftertheexperiment)Levene"sTestforEqualityofVariancest-testforEqualityofMeans95%ConfidenceIntervaloftheSig.MeanStd.ErrorDifferenceFSig.tdf(2-tailed)DifferenceDifferenceLowerUpperEqualvariances1.365.2462.03978.0454.100002.01076.096888.10312assumedAsTable

202、5-6andTable5-9show,byutilizingtheIndependent-samplesT-Test,theresearcherhasfoundouttheachievementofE-classandC-classhassignificantdifferenceinthepretestandposttest.Inthetable,theSig.Value<0.05,namelythereissignificantdifferenceandmoreimportantly,theachievementofE-classimp

203、rovedalotthanC-classaftertheexperiment.FromTable5-1toTable5-9,wecandrawtheconclusionthattheE-classandthe32nC-classhadthecloselevelinwrittenpretestbeforetheexperiment.However,theachievementofthetwoclasseshasbeenimprovedtogetheraftertheexperimentandtheE-class’simprovementi

204、smoreremarkablethantheC-class’s.5.1.1.2AnalysisofOralTestsTheresearcheradoptedthesameapproach—SPSS13.0tocollectandanalyzethedataofthescoresonoraltests.Table5-10TheOralTestScoreBeforeTheExperiment(E-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score78849682817583836587846980

205、83899293737390number2122232425262728293031323334353637383940Score8486868489847582767478838078828271848687Table5-11TheOralTestScoreAfterTheExperiment(E-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score8687968586787986698985798584929396777891number212223242526272829303132333

206、4353637383940Score8688898784797884797382878987848677899291Table5-12TheOralTestScoreBeforeTheExperiment(C-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score8084957983778083678580777079919293727590number2122232425262728293031323334353637383940Score7988878491797584787680858180

207、807773657680Table5-13TheOralTestScoreAfterTheExperiment(C-Class)number1234567891011121314151617181920Score8685868281798286698482807277899395767491number212223242526272829303132333435363738394033nScore8287898892817994767880868478828070757482Table5-14StatisticalDataofTable

208、5.10-Table5.13E-classbeforeE-classafterC-classbeforeC-classafterN40404040Mean81.775084.800080.750081.9000Std.Deviation6.600265.992306.815336.87918Variance43.56335.90846.44947.323Table5-15TheAchievementAnalysisofE-classandC-class(beforetheexperiment)Levene"sTestforEqu

209、alityt-testforEqualityofMeansofVariances95%ConfidenceSig.MeanStd.ErrorIntervaloftheFSig.tdf(2-tailed)DifferenceDifferenceDifferenceLowerUpperEqualvariances.031.860.68378.4961.025001.50010-1.961474.01147assumedEqualvariances.68377.920.4961.025001.50010-1.961524.01152notass

210、umedAccordingtoTable5-14andTable5-15,themeanoftwoclassesis81.775and80.75respectivelyandtheSig.Value>0.05beforetheexperiment.Therefore,we34nconcludedthatthetwoclasseshadthecloseorallevel.Table5-16TheAchievementAnalysisofE-class(comparisonbeforetheexperimentandaftertheexpe

211、riment)PairedDifferences95%ConfidenceStd.IntervaloftheStd.ErrorDifferenceMeanDeviationMeanLowerUppertdfSig.(2-tailed)eclassbefore--3.025003.23829.51202-4.06066-1.98934-5.90839.000eclassafterAsTable5-16shows,itisobvioustofindoutthattheSig.Value<0.05bythePaired-samplesT-Tes

212、t.SowecancometoaconclusionthattheoralachievementofE-classhasbeenimprovedlengthwaysintheterm.Table5-17TheAchievementAnalysisofC-class(comparisonbeforetheexperimentandaftertheexperiment)PairedDifferences95%ConfidenceStd.IntervaloftheStd.ErrorDifferenceSig.MeanDeviationMeanL

213、owerUppertdf(2-tailed)eclassbefore--1.150003.00043.47441-2.10958-.19042-2.42439.02035neclassafterAsTable5-17shows,theSig.ValueofOralTestsforC-classis0.020,whichislowerthan0.05.SotheoralachievementofC-classhasalsobeenimproved.Table5-18TheAchievementAnalysisofE-classandC-c

214、lass(aftertheexperiment)Levene"sTestforEqualityofVariancest-testforEqualityofMeans95%ConfidenceIntervaloftheSig.MeanStd.ErrorDifferenceFSig.tdf(2-tailed)DifferenceDifferenceLowerUpperEqualvariances.469.4952.01078.0482.900001.44249.028235.77177assumedBycomparingthedat

215、aofTable5-15andTable5-18,theSig.ValueinTable5-18is0.048,whichislowerthat0.05.OnthebasisoftheSPSStheory,theresearchersupposesthattheoralachievementofE-classismoreremarkablethanC-classaftertheexperiment.Throughtheexperimentanddataanalysis,aconclusioncanbereachedthatE-classa

216、ndC-classhavethesimilarlevelbeforetheexperiment.Afterthat,thoughtheybothimproved,theorallevelofE-classismuchhigherthanC-class.5.1.2AnalysisofClassroomObservationClassroomobservationaimstoobserveandrecordetheteachingprocessincludingthetimeallocation,theteachingmethodsandth

217、efeedbackofthestudents.Thisismuchrelatedtotheformativeassessment.After10classhours’observation(50minutesforeachclasshour),theresearchernoticedthattheE-classandC-class36nhaveverydifferentclassroomenvironmentjustduetothedifferentteachingmethods.InE-class,itwasorganizedbybe

218、ingstudent-centered,withallstudentshavingheateddiscussion,continuingthegroupwork,practicingtheconversation.Allinall,CLTplayedagreatroleinleadingstudentstoheatedpractice.WhiletheC-classcontinuedtousethetraditionalapproach:itwasteacher-centered,withtheteacherreadingthenewwo

219、rds,explainingthemeaningofthenewwords,interpretingthegrammarpointsandkeylanguagepointsanddoinganumberofexercises.ThewholeprocessofC-classlackedpassion,activitiesandcommunicativepractice.Studentsprobablyunderstoodthetextbutcouldnotexpressandcommunicatewitheachother.Afterca

220、lculatingthepercentageoftimeallocationandpassionofstudents,theteachingenvironmentwillbeshownclearlyanddirectly.Table5-19TimeallocationinE-classandC-classTotaltimeMeantimeClassTypeRolesPercentage(%)(minutes)(minutes)ExperimentalTeacher1651633ClassStudents3353467ControlledT

221、eacher3233264.6ClassStudents1771835.4Table5-19showsclearlythattheclasstimeallocationdistributedtothestudents’parcticesinE-classismuchmorethanthatinC-classduringthe10classhours.TheteacheroftheE-classfollowedtherulesofCLTapporach,givingstudentsmoretimetopracticetheircommuni

222、cativeabilitybyusingdifferentmethods.CLTapproachobviouslystimulatedthestudents’passionandinterestandledthestudentstoopeningtheirmouthes,whichistheultimategoalofonelanguage.Table5-20NumbersofstudentsparticipatinginclasspracticesNumberandActive(meanPassive(meanNever(meanCla

223、ssTypePercentagenumber)number)number)ExperimentalStudents2515037nnumber(40)ClassPercentage62.537.50(%)Students91516number(40)ControlledClassPercentage22.537.540(%)Table5-20simplyrecordedtheperformancesofstudentsinthesetwoclasses.ObviouslythestudentsintheE-classperformedm

224、oreactivelythanthoseinC-class.Sowecanconcludethatthenumbersparticipatingintheclassessurelyinfluencetheteachingefficiencyandtheapplicationofonelanguage.5.1.3AnalysisofQuestionnairesQuestionnaireisanadditionaldatacollectionandanalysisfortheresearch.AllthestudentsofE-classwe

225、rerequiredtofillinthepre-questionnaireandpost-questionnaire.Theresearcherdidthestatisticanalysisaccordingtothestatisticoutcomesofthequesionnaires.5.1.3.1AnalysisofPre-questionnaireTable5-21Dataconcerningstudents’motivationforEnglishstudystronglyIdonotstronglyagreedisagree

226、QuestionagreeknowdisagreeNPNPNPNPNP137.50%512.5%12.5%1127.5%2050.0%23895.0%25.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%31537.5%2562.5%00.0%00.0%00.0%43177.5%512.5%25.0%12.5%12.5%Note:N=studentsnumber;P=percentage38nFromthedataofTable5-21,only20%studentsthinktheyhavesomeinterestinEnglish,77.5%st

227、udentsthinkEnglishisboringandawesome.SotheprimaryproblemforthisclassisthemotivationforEnglishstudy.Nomotivation,nopower.AstoQuestions2and3,100%studentsadmitandacceptthefactthatEnglishisquiteimportantfortheircareer;furthermore,100%studentsthinkcommunicationinEnglishisneces

228、sary.AccordingtoQuestion4,90%studentssupposethattheyareforcedtolearnbecauseofallsortsofEnglishexaminations.Therefore,wecangetthebasicconclutionthatstudentsrealizetheimportanceofEnglishbuttheypaymoreattentiontotheinterestedexamination.Table5-22Dataconcerningteacher’smethod

229、ologystronglyIdonotstronglyagreedisagreeQuestionagreeknowdisagreeNPNPNPNPNP537.5%512.5%12.5%1127.5%2152.5%Note:N=studentsnumber;P=percentageQuestion5isabouttheatmosphereofclasses.82.5%studentsthinkitisnotactiveandenjoyable.Fromthefacetofaceinterview,theresearcherknewthatm

230、oststudentskeepinsilenceevensleepwellinclasses.Spoon-fedteachingstylecannotstimulatetheirattentionandparticipation.Table5-23DataconcerningclassroomatmospherestronglyIdonotstronglyagreedisagreeQuestionagreeknowdisagreeNPNPNPNPNP6410.0%615.0%37.5%1947.5%820.0%72357.5%1127.5

231、%00.0%25.0%410.0%82255.0%1127.5%25.0%25.0%37.5%39nNote:N=studentsnumber;P=percentageWecandirectlygettheinformationfromQuestion7andQuestion8,85%and82.5%students’lackoralpracticeandteachersarealwaysthecenterinclasses.Only25%inQuestion6accepttheteacher-centeredstyle.Althoug

232、hthetraditionalapproachhasitsadvantages,yettherequirementsofstudentsclaimthestudent-centeredstyle.5.1.3.2AnalysisofPost-questionnaireTable5-24Dataconcerningstudents’overallevaluationonCLTstronglyIdonotstronglyagreedisagreeQuestionagreeknowdisagreeNPNPNPNPNP12357.5%1230.0%

233、12.5%00.0%410.0%62152.5%1332.5%12.5%00.0%512.5%82357.5%1332.5%00.0%00.0%410.0%Note:N=studentsnumber;P=percentageTable5-24showsthatthestudents’overallevaluationonCLT.Wecanobservethat87.5%ofstudentsastoQuestion1agreeCLTisabetterwayandishelpfulfortheirEnglishstudy.86%ofthema

234、dmitthattheygetprofitsfromCLTapproachand90%ofthemhopeittocontinuenextterm.Bycontrast,nearly10%ofstudentsdisagreeonthisapproachjustbecauseofsomedeficiencies.Table5-25DataconcerningimplementationofCLTinclassesstronglyIdonotstronglyagreedisagreeQuestionagreeknowdisagreeNPNPN

235、PNPNP32870.0%922.5%00.0%00.0%37.5%42562.5%1025.0%00.0%12.5%410.0%52357.5%1127.5%12.5%12.5%410.0%72460.0%1537.5%00.0%00.0%12.5%40nNote:N=studentsnumber;P=percentageFromTable5-25,wewillgetmoreinformationabouttheimplementationofCLTinclasses.ComparedwithQuestion5inpre-questi

236、onnaire,92.5%ofstudentsthinktheclasseswithCLTaremoreactiveandenjoyableincontrastto20%inpre-questionnaire.Overall,morethan85%ofstudentsenjoythestudent-centeredstyleandadmitmoreactivitiesareagreathelptogettingcommunicativeabilitiesthoughthereareafewstudentswhocouldnotacclim

237、atizethemselvestothenewapproach.Table5-26DataconcerningcommunicativefunctionofCLTstronglyIdonotstronglyagreedisagreeQuestionagreeknowdisagreeNPNPNPNPNP21640.0%1230%25%512.5%512.5%Note:N=studentsnumber;P=percentageTalbe5-26clearlyindicatesthatasanewapproach,CLTneedstogradu

238、allydevelopandbeaccepted.Inthistable,70%ofstudentsthinktheiroralandcomprehensiveabilityareimproved.Bycontrast,30%ofstudentsstillhavetheoppositeviews.ThissituationstatesthepracticeofCLTisgoodbutnotgoodenough.Eachprocessmustbeadjustedmuchmoreseriously.5.2DiscussionInthischa

239、pter,weanalyzethedatabasedonthetestresult,classroomobservationandthequestionnairessystematically.Afteraterm’shardwork,thestatedobjectiveisachieved:todetecttheeffectofCLTapproach.Onthewhole,thecommunicativelanguageteachingapproachdoesEnglishacquisitiongoodandstimulatethemo

240、tivationofstudents.(1)ThefirstvisualfeatureofCLTisthechangeofclassroomatmosphere.AbundantactivitiesanddifferentteachingmethodsledstudentstothefreedomofEnglish.41nTask-discussionhelpsstudentsfocusontheirtaskandseektheanswersbydiscussion.Pairworkorgroupworkhelpthemfeelrela

241、xedinclassesandbeeagertoexpresswhattheyhavelearned,whattheyhavethought,andwhattheystilldonotknow.(2)ThemostimportantchangeinCLTclassesisthechangeofroles.Theteachertriedtoconstructarealstudent-centeredstyle.Theteahcernotonlyfocusedontheknowledgeteachingbutalsotheknowledgeu

242、tilization.Certainlyitneedstheteachertomakemoreefforttopreparetheclassorganization,problemsetting,rationalsubgrouping,effectiveexplanationandtimelyguidance.Meanwhile,theteacherandthestudentsmaymeettheproblemsintheimplementationofCLT.(3)CLTfocusesonthecommunicativefunction

243、.Soitneedstobebasedonthesuitablematerial,variousactivitiesandniceplatform.Thereasearcherfindsthatmoststudentshadgreatinterestinthenewstyleandperformedveryactively.Theyprobablyenjoyedtherelaxedatmospherebutneglectedtheknowledgeitself.Theclassroomlookedlikeaplayground.Astim

244、epasses,theclassroomgotintoagroove.Sohowtoestablishalonglastingmodelandcreatedifferentsituationsisveryessential.(4)Theroleorientationisnotverysharp.InCLTclasses,theteachershouldbeagoodguiderandagoodorganizer.Onthecontrary,theteacherpartiallyperformedlaissez-faire.Theresul

245、tisthatthestudentsdidnotknowwhattheyshouldpayattentionto,whattheyhavelearned.Afteraterm’sstudy,theyfelttheylearnednothingasbareasthepalmoftheirhands.(5)CLTapproachneedsinformationtechnologytosupport.WerealizedthatiftheCLTkeepsfresh,weneedrenewtheteachingmaterialandthemeth

246、ods.Underthebackgroundofintegrationofworkandstudy,thecollegealsoshouldsupportenoughmulti-mediaresources,varioustrainingplatformcombiningtheMEEeducationandtherulesofIMO.Inbrief,inconductingCLTinMEEteachingsuccessfully,itisessentialfortheteachersandthecollegetounderstandthe

247、problemsandseekenoughmeasurestosettlethemdown.42nChapterSixConclusionDuringtheresearchterm,pre-testandpost-testhadbeendoneandtwoclasseswerechosenforexperimentalcomparision.Theresearcheranalyzedthedatacollectedfromthetests,classroomobservation,questionnairesandsomeface-to

248、-faceinterviews.NowwecandrawtheconclusionthattheapplicationofCLTapproachcanarousestudents’interestinMEEclass,stimulatestudents’activelearningpassionanddevelopstudents’communicativeabilities.Apparentlyalongwiththeprogressofstudents,theteacher’scapabilitieshavebeenimprovedi

249、nthesameway.CLTapproachisaneffectiveandpracticalwayofteaching.6.1PedagogicalImplications6.1.1FeasibilityofImplementingCLTinMEETeachingUnderthebackgroundofintegrationofworkandstudy,alongwiththedevelopmentofCLTtheoryandscientificandtechnologicalinformation,theimplementation

250、ofCLTinMEEteachingwillbemuchmorefeasible.TheapplicationofCLTisboundtobaseontheprofessionalrequirements,theteacher’sprogress,theteachingmaterialsimprovement,theteachingequipmentupgradingandtheEnglishlevelofstudents.(1)TheRequirementsofSTCWonMEEMarineEngineerisoneoftheposit

251、ionsofseafarersonboard.Sotobeacompetentserfarer,allkindsofabilitiesareequippednecessarily,includingprofessionalengineskills,completenauticalknowledgeandproficientEnglishapplication.TheInternationalConventiononTraining,CertificationandWatchkeepingforSeafarers(STCW)wasissue

252、din1978,namelySTCW78.In1995,STCW95conventiontookeffectandnewrequirementsaboutnauticalEnglishteaching,especiallythemultinationalcommunicativecompetencewereputforwardbyIMO.Intheconvention,engineersarerequiredtomastertheabilitytointerpret43nengineeringpublicationswritteninE

253、nglishandcommunicateclearlywhenperformingengineeringduties.AmongthefourcommunicativeskillsofEnglish—listening,speaking,readingandwriting,theprimaryisspeakingasaserfarerwhichisinaccordancewiththeultimategoaloflanguage.(2)TheSupportofEquipmentUpdatingforMEEQingdaoOceanshipp

254、ingMarinersCollege(QMC),forwhichtheresearcherisworking,isconstructinganewcampusinJiaonan,Qingdao.Asanauticalvocationalcollege,professionalequipmentistheessentialpartforthenavigationaleducation.Withthehelpofthisdeveloppingchance,QMCisplaningtobuildadigitalcampusandtheadvan

255、ceddigitalclassrooms.Atthattime,theinformationresourceswillbeenrichedgreatlyandthestudentscanpracticemoreaccordingtotheCLTwiththehelpoftheinformationplatform.Bythen,mediacanhelptoimitatethesailingsituationforEnglishcommunication.(3)TheRequirementsoftheTeachingParticipants

256、WiththedevelopmentofCLTtheory,itisusedinGEteachingprocess.Nevertheless,thetraditionalapproach—thestudent-centeredstyle—isstilladoptedwidespreadlyforESPteaching.Bynow,theCLTapproachpavedagoodpathforMEE.Accordingtothefeedbackofabundantgraduates,ESPisveryvitalfortheircareera

257、ndEnglishonboardfocusesonthecommunicativefunction.AstwoparticipantsofMEE,teachersandstudentshavedifferentsituation.TheMEEteachershavebecomeexpertsinMEfieldafterseveralyearsofteaching.Theyhavesurpassedtheprimarystage:togetthemeaningofthenauticalterms,andtheyaretryingtocomb

258、inetheteachingmethodandteachingmaterialswell,especiallyfollowingtherulesofSTCWtightly.ThestudentsinQMCbasicallymasterthegrammarandvocabularyofEnglish,buttheirEnglishisdeafanddumb.Atthesametime,anotherseriousprobleminMEEisthattheylackmotivationandpassionofEnglishlearning.T

259、herefore,itistherighttimetoadjusttheteachingapproachandsettlethemotivationproblemandreturntotherealpurposeoflanguageacquisition.Tosumup,thedevelopmentandapplicationofCLThavethetheoreticalbasisandrealisticfoundation.44n6.1.2SuggestionsforImplementingCLTinMEETeaching6.1.2.

260、1ThePrinciplesofImplementingCLTinMEETeachingToimplementCLT,someprinciplesmustbefollowed.AsRichards,J.C.&T.SRodgers(2000)stated,inlanguagepractices,someelementsshouldbetakenintoaccount:thecommunicationprinciple(i.e.activitiesthatinvolverealcommunicationpromotelearning)

261、,thetaskprinciple(i.e.activitiesinwhichlanguageisusedforcarryingoutmeaningfultaskspromotelearning)andthemeaningfulnessprinciple(i.e.languagethatisismeaningfultothelearnersupportsthelearningprocess).Beforethen,in1983,FinoccharioandBrumfitsummarizedtheprinciplesofCLTasfollo

262、ws:(1)Teachingisalearner-centeredprocessandrespectsthestudents’need.(2)Thetargetlanguageisacquiredthroughinteractivecommunicativeusethatencouragesthenegotiationsofmeaning.(3)Genuinelymeaningfullanguageuseisemphasized,alongwithunpredictability,risk-taking,andchoice-making.

263、(4)Theformalpropertiesoflanguagearenevertreatedinisolationfromuse,languageformsarealwaysaddressedwithinacommunicativecontext.(5)Thereisexposuretoexamplesofauthenticlanguagefromthetargetlanguagecommunity.(6)Thestudentsareencouragedtodiscovertheformsandstucturesoflanguagefo

264、rthemselves.(7)Thereisawhole-languageapproachinwhichthefourtraditionallanguageskillsareintegrated.6.1.2.2RecommendationsforImplementingCLTinMEETeaching(1)CombiningthetraditionalapproachwithCLTapproachDifferentapproacheshavedifferentemphasis.Thetraditionalonesfocusonthelan

265、guageformratherthancontentandsituation.TheCLTapproachpaysmoreattentiontothecommunicativefunctionandtherolesofstudentsandteachers.They45nbothhaveadvantagesanddisadvantages.IpersonallyagreewhatLiGuangyisaid“itisbrighttocarryforwardthestrongpointsandabandontheweakonesintrad

266、itionalmethod,absorbtheusefulfactorsincommunicativeapproachtoserveus.Wecannotagreeitorobjectitall.”InCLTclass,necessaryexplanationandexerciseshouldnotbeneglected.Butweshouldfigureoutthatpayingattentiontothebasicknowledgeincludinggrammar,structureandvocabularydoesnotmeanth

267、espoon-fedteaching.Allinall,theteachingmethodsservetheteachingsituation.Theteachershouldadaptthemethodstotheteachingrequirements.(2)BalancingtherelationshipoffourbasiclanguageskillsSometeacherspartiallythinkthatCLTapproachshouldemphasizethecommunicativeabilityandneglectot

268、hers.Forinstance,ateacherposesaquestion:howtocommunicatewiththelocalofficialsaboutthebunkering?ThisquestioncanbemetinMEElistening,speakingandreadingcourses.Theteachercouldoffersomeusefulwordsandexplainnecessarybackgroundfirstly,andthenarrangegoupworkanddiscussion,andtakin

269、gnotesisnecessary.Finally,expresstheansweronegroupbyonegroup.Inthisprocess,fourskillsarecombinedorganicallyandnaturally.SoIthinkthatCLTapproachaimstodeveloptheteachers’guidanceandbuildthecommunicativesituationandtrytousethelearntknowledgeandexpresseffectively.(3)Definitin

270、gtherolesofteachersanddevelopingthecomprehensiveabilitiesofteachersInCLTclassroom,theroleofteachershaschangedtoadirector,aninstrutor,organizerandassessor.Firstly,theteachingisstudent-centeredandencouragesstudentstofindandsettletheproblemsandhelpstudentstothinkandcommunica

271、te.Butitdoesnotmeanlaisser-faire.Theteacher’sroleisstillimprotant.Secondly,inCLTclassroom,thestudents’roleisopenandfreetosomedegrees,soanyproblemandquestioncanbeasked.Ithinktheteachershouldcontinuetodevelopthecomprehensiveabilitiesandgoodmentalqualityandnicecontrollingabi

272、lity.(4)Innovatingtheteachingmethodsandutilizingthemulti-mediamaximumlyInthisstudy,theresercherfoundthestudentshavelessinteretinCLTapproachatlastthanatthebeginning.Obviouslyeachclasshasthesimilaractivities:grouptalk,46nclassdiscussion,role-play,etc.Infact,theresearcherpe

273、rsonallythinksthattheCLTteachingneedsthegreatsupportofmulti-mediaandrichmaterials.InMEEteaching,theteacherscanusethemultimediatosearchthelatestnewsaboutinternationalseafaring,thelatestpracticingMEEmaterials,thelatestorganizingplatform.Theteacherscandesignthecommunicativea

274、nimationorsituationforstudents.Besides,thetextboolcompilationisalsoveryessential.Thecollegesshouldsupportandencouragetheteacherstodotheresearchabouttheteachingapproachesandmethodsanddesignthetextbookswhichsatisfytheneedsofstudentsandissuitabletouseforteachers.Allinall,the

275、CLTapproachisnotaspecificmethod.Asamatteroffact,CLTnotnolydetailsthemeaningofteachingandlearning,butalsogivesthedefinitionofacquisitionofcommunicativeability.Asfortheteachingmethods,theyarethespecificmeasurestorealizethepurposeoflanguageandachievethegoaloflanguage.6.2Limi

276、tationsandFurtherResearch6.2.1LimitationsofthePresentStudyTheCLTteachingactivitiesresearchwascarriedoutduringthepastfifteenweeks.Asawhole,ithasachievedalotandwecanbenefitfromtheexperiment.However,aswithallstudies,therearealsosomelimitationsintheresearch.Firstly,thesubject

277、softhestudyareonly40inQMCandtheperiodisonlyaterm.Sotheparticipantscannotstandforthewholeandtimeisalittlelimited.Secondly,thedesignofquestionsandanalysismaynotbescientificenoughandwordsselectionmaynotbeaccurateenoughduetothepersonalreason.Thirdly,theExperimentalClasscouldb

278、ebetteriftheexperimenthadenoughsupport,especiallytheteachingmaterialisold-fashionedandtheteachingequipmentisnotmodernenough.47n6.2.2SuggestionsforFurtherStudyThisisnottheendofresearchaboutCLTapproach,butabeginningtocontinue.AlongwiththeconstructionofthenewcampusofQMC,the

279、researcherwilltakethisasthebeginningandcontinuethefurtherresearch.(1)Dotheresearchabouttheeffectofmulti-mediatotheCLTapproach.(2)Makeastudyinalargergroupofstudentsinothermajorsandgradesandconductafollow-upstudyoftheprofitofCLTfromthefeedbackofgraduates.(3)Communicativefun

280、ctionisgoodforthelong-termimprovement,andfortheshortermCET4andCET6arealsothekeypoints.Therefore,howtobalancethefourskillsinCLTclassroomwillthestudyingpoint.(4)Englishacquisitionneedscreationofatmosphere.SoIthinkhowtocombinetheCLTapproachwithextracurricularactivitiesandest

281、ablishtheactiveatmosphereofEnglishstudyisalsomeaningful.TheCLTapproachisaboldattemptandinnovationforEnglishteachingandlearningandopenupanewfieldforEnglishstudy.Itemphasizesthecommunicativefunctionandcombinesthegoaloflanguageandworkingabilities.Hopefully,theEnglishstudyinC

282、hinawillflourishandathoroughstudywillbemadeinthefuture.48nBibliography[1]Andrew,D.Cohen.StrategiesinLearningandUsingaSecondLanguage.Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,2000.[2]Brown,H.D.TeachingbyPriciples:AnInteractiveapproachtoLanguagePedagogy.Beijing:Forei

283、gnLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,2001.[3]Brumfit,C.J.&Johnson,K.TheCommunicativeApproachtoLanguageTeaching.Oxford:OUP,1979.[4]Canale,M.&M.Swain.TheoreticalBasesofCommunicativeApporachestoSecondLanguageTeachingandTesting.AppliedLinguistic,1983.[5]C.J.BrumfitandK.

284、Johnson.TheCommunicativeApproachofLanguageTeaching.上海:上海外语教育出版社,2000.[6]Halliday,McIntoshandStrevens.TheLinguisticSciencesandLanguageTeaching.London:Longman,1964.[7]Hutchinson,T.&Waters,A.EnglishforSpecificPurposes:ALearning-centeredApproach.Cambridge:CambridgeUnivers

285、ityPress,1987.[8]Hymes,D.OnCommunicativeCompetence.InJ.B.Pride&J.Holmes(eds.),Sociolinguistics.Harmondsworth:Penguin,1971.[9]Littlewood,W.CommunicativeLanguageTeaching.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1981.[10]Littlewood,W.ForeignandSecondLanguageLearning.北京:北京语言与文化

286、大学出版社,2000.[11]Johnson.CommunicativeSyllabusDesignandMethodology.Oxford:Pergamon,1982.[12]IMO.InternationalConventiononStandardsoftraining,CertificationandWatchkeepingforSeafarers,1978,asamendedin1995.北京:中国科学技术出版社,1997.[13]Krashen,D.S.PrinciplesandPracticeinSecondLanguage

287、Acquisition.Oxford:Pergamon,1982.[14]Richards,J.C.&T.S.Rodgers.ApproachesandMethodsinLanguageTeaching[M].Beijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,1986.49n[15]Widdowson,H.G.TeachingLanguageasCommunication.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1990.[16]Widdowson,H.G.The

288、RolesofTeacherandLearner.ELTJ,1987(2).[17]戴曼纯.交际英语教学法的几个常见错误观念和误解.《外语教学》,1997(4).[18]丁晓梅.Internet在轮机专业英语教学中的应用.《杭州教育学院学报》,2002(3):91-93.[19]方泉根,陈黄赛,夏海波.我国高等学校航海类专业英语教学的现状与改进.《航海教育研究》,2004,第2期:47-51,2004,第3期:47-50.[20]方小明,符合《STcW78/95公约》要求深化专业英语教学改革,《引进与咨询》,2004,第l期:42-43.

289、[21]方玉琴,试论交际法在大学英语教学中的实施,《外语研究》,2006(5).[22]顾文军,专门用途英语教学与研究领域,《外语与外语教学》,2001,第12期:23-24.[23]郭茂生,谈“交际法”在英语教学中的运用,《山西财经学院学报》,1995.[24]黄丽萍,轮机英语的文体特点,《青岛远洋船员学院学报》,1999,第1期:53-55.[25]韩宝成,外语教学科研中的统计方法,外语教学与研究出版社,2000.[26]教育部高等教育司,《大学英语课程教学要求(试行)》[M],北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2004.[27]乐眉云,应

290、用语言学,南京:南京师范人学出版社,1999.[28]李观仪,传统教学法与交际教学法相结合可行乎?[J],《外语界》,1989(1).[29]秦秀白,ESP的性质、范畴和教学原则、《华南理卜人学学报(社科版)》,2003,第4期:36-39.[30]汪诚强,航海英语教改研究新论,《中国职业技术教育》,2004,第34期:37-38.[31]王鹏,论航海类专业基础英语与海事英语的衔接,《航海教育研究》,2003,第2期:47-49.[32]王鹏,轮机英语交际法教学与教师策略,《青岛远洋船员学院学报》,2004,第3期:41-43.[33]王

291、鹏,论我国轮机英语教学的体系性困难与应对策略,《青岛远洋船员学院学报》,2004,第I期:48-51.[34]文秋芳,应用语言学研究方法与论文写作,北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2004.[35]文秋芳,英语学习策略轮[M],上海:上海外语教育出版社,1996.50n[36]王艳秋、杨连慧,谈轮机工程专业英语教学改革,《航海教育研究》,2000,第3期:44-46.[37]徐强,交际法英语教学和考试评估,上海:上海外语教育出版社,2000.(应按字母顺序排列,徐在尹前)[38]尹自斌、戴乐阳,试论新形势下轮机英语课程的教学改革,《交通高教

292、研究》,2001,第l期:71-73.[39]杨连瑞,英语交际教学法简论,《四川外语学院学报》,1992(1)[40]朱钰、蔡振雄,关于轮机专业英语教学改革的若干思考,《航海教育研究》,2001,第2期:43,46.51nAppendicesAppendix1Pre-questionnaireDearfellowstudents,InordertocomprehendyourEnglishlevelandformulatethebetterstudymethodsforyourMarineEngineeringEnglish,youar

293、eexpectedtoanswerthequestionslistedonthequestionnairehonestly.Pleasechoosethebestchoicewhichissuitableforyou.Therearefivechoicesforeachquestion.Thanksforyourpatienceandparticipation.A.StronglyagreeB.AgreeC.Idon’tknowD.DisagreeE.Stronglydisagree1.YouhavegreatinterestinEngl

294、ishstudy,includingMarineEngineeringEnglish.ABCDE2.Tobeanengineer,Englishisverynecessaryandessential.ABCDE3.YouthinkcommunicationinEnglishisveryimportantforyourcareer.ABCDE4.YouarelearningEnglishjustbecauseoftheNationalEnglishTest,suchasCET4,CET6eventheprofessionaltest.ABC

295、DE5.Yourclassroomatmosphereisveryenjoyableandactive.ABCDE6.Youliketheteacher-centeredteachingapproach.ABCDE7.YouseldompracticeyouroralEnglishinclassorafterclass.ABCDE8.Inyourclass,theEnglishteacherusedtoreadandexplainthegrammarandwordsforyou.ABCDE52nAppendix2Post-questio

296、nnaireDearfellowstudents,Inthisterm,wehaveexperiencedtheCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT)approach.Inordertogetthefeedback,pleaseanswerthefollowingquestionswithfivechoicesfrankly.Thankforyourparticipation.A.StronglyagreeB.AgreeC.Idon’tknowD.DisagreeE.Stronglydisagree1.Com

297、paredwiththetraditionalways,CLTisabetterwayforEnglishstudy.ABCDE2.Afteraterm’sstudy,yourcommnicativeabilityandcomprehensiveabilityareimproved.ABCDE3.InCLTclasses,theatmosphereisveryenjoyableandactive.ABCDE4.MoreclassactivitiesarehelpfulforyourEnglishlearning.ABCDE5.Nowthe

298、teacherfocusesmoreonthestudent-centeredstyle.ABCDE6.Asawhole,youthinkCLThelpsyoutoimproveEnglishthisterm.ABCDE7.Besidestheclassroomatmosphere,CLTishelpfulforyourcommunicativeabilityofEnglish.ABCDE8.Allinall,youexpectCLTwillcontinuetobeusednextterm.ABCDE53nAcknowledgement

299、sIamgreatlyindebtedtoallthosewhohavehelpedmeandcontributedtothecompletionofthisthesis.Mysincerethanksandappreciationfirstofallgotomymastertutor,whohastaughtmealotinpastyearsofpostgraduatestudyandhasspentsomuchtimeandeffortinstructingmeineachdetailthroughoutallthestagesofd

300、evelopmentandcompletionofthethesis.Itishisenlighteninginstructions,valuablesuggestionsandsystematicacademicguidancethathaveledmetoovercomingmanydifficultiesandmadethethesisareality.IamalsoverygratefultosuchprofessorsasLiuRushan,ZhaoDeyu,DengHongfeng,FanLinandTengMei,whose

301、instructionsofthetheoriesinmanydisciplinesoflinguisticsareofgreatbenefittome.Inaddition,myheart-feltthanksgotomycolleguesChenBei,GuYulian,ZhangJing,ZhuYanliandSunZengjunatQingdaoOceanShippingMarinersCollege,whohaveconstantlygivenmetimelyhelpandvaluableadviceonmyresearch.T

302、henIwouldliketothankalltheauthorsofthereferencesinthisthesiswhohavecarriedoutthepioneeringacademicstudies.Myfinalthanksgotomyfamilyfortheirconstantsupportandencouragement.Theirlovesupportsmetoaccomplishmymaster’sdegreeeducation.Hence,itismypleasuretodedicatethisthesistomy

303、family.54n个人简历1981年07月28日出生于山东省昌邑市。2001年9月考入烟台大学外国语学院英语专业,2005年7月本科毕业并获得文学学士学位。2007年9月考入中国海洋大学外国语学院外国语言学及应用语言学专业。2005年至今,青岛远洋船员职业学院教师。55n发表的学术论文[1]张我友.大学英语基础课程形成性评估的运用.科教导刊,2009(9):33-41.[2]郑晓燕,张我友.中国英语学习者跨文化交际语用失误分析.科技信息,2010-07:213-206.[3]张我友.任务型教学法在船舶修造安全管理英语口语课程中的应用

304、研究.青岛远洋船员职业学院学报.2013(3).56n

你可能关注的文档
关闭