交际教学法指导下的高中英语语法教学

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1、nnn目录摘要..............................................................................................................................................IAbstract.........................................................................................................................................IIIChapterOneIntroduction......

2、..........................................................................................................11.1ResearchBackground............................................................................................................11.2ResearchProblem..........................................................................

3、........................................11.2.1TheContent.....................................................................................................................11.2.2TheOrigin....................................................................................................................21.3Structure............

4、..................................................................................................................5ChapterTwoLiteratureReview......................................................................................................62.1GrammarandGrammarTeaching.........................................................

5、................................62.1.1TheDefinitionofGrammar............................................................................................62.1.2TheImportanceofTeachingGrammar...........................................................................62.1.3GrammarTeachingundertheDominatedTeachingMethods.............

6、...........................72.1.4PresentStatusofGrammarTeaching............................................................................112.2CommunicativeApproach...................................................................................................122.2.1CommunicativeCompetence...................................

7、.....................................................132.2.2TwoVersionsofCommunicativeApproach.................................................................152.2.3SomeTeachingModelsofCommunicativeApproach..................................................152.2.4MisconceptionsandImprovementsofCommunicativeApproach.............

8、..................172.3GrammarTeachingandCommunicativeApproach............................................................192.3.1RelationsbetweenGrammarandCommunication.......................................................192.3.2TheApplicationofCommunicativeApproachinGrammarTeaching.........................212.3.3Communicative

9、ClassroomandtheTeacher’sRoleinit..............................................23ChapterThreeMethodology.........................................................................................................253.1Objectives..........................................................................................................

10、..................253.2Participants..........................................................................................................................253.3Instruments..........................................................................................................................263.4Materials....................

11、..........................................................................................................26n3.5Procedure.............................................................................................................................26ChapterFourAnalysesandFindings..................................................

12、..........................................334.1Dataanalysis........................................................................................................................334.1.1QuestionnairesAnalysis................................................................................................334.1.2PretestAnalysis...

13、..........................................................................................................364.1.3Post-testAnalysis..........................................................................................................364.1.4Findings..............................................................................

14、...........................................374.2Implications.........................................................................................................................404.2.1TheImportanceofGrammarTeachinginHighSchool................................................404.2.2TheImplicationofRelativelyAuthenticEnvironme

15、ntforClass..................................414.2.3GrammarTeachingPrinciplesinCommunicativeApproach........................................424.2.4AtypicalTeachingModelintheWriter’sClass............................................................43Conclusion........................................................................

16、.............................................................46Bibliography..................................................................................................................................49Appendix..................................................................................................................

17、.....................52AppendixATheQuestionnaireaboutEnglishGrammarTeachinginSeniorHighSchool(forteachers)........................................................................................................................................52AppendixBTheQuestionnaireaboutEnglishGrammarLearninginSeniorHighSchool(forstudents)..

18、......................................................................................................................................54AppendixCPretestPaper.............................................................................................................56AppendixDPost-test...........................................

19、.........................................................................60AppendixEResultsfortheTeachers’Quetionnaire...................................................................63AppendixFResultsfortheStudents’Quetionnaire......................................................................64AppendixGResultsofPretestan

20、dPost-test.................................................................................65AppendixHGuidePaperforStudents..........................................................................................66Acknowledgments...................................................................................................

21、......................73n摘要语法在高中英语教学中无疑占据重要的地位,但是一直以来,教不教、怎样教一直困扰着很多英语教师,也是教学界长期争论的话题。在传统课堂中,教师利用大量的选择题为依托,向学生灌输语法规则,导致语言知识成为课堂教学的目的。与此同时,忽略了学生在课堂中的主体地位,使得英语学习成为被动记忆的过程。这一普遍存在的现象给学生达成语言学习最终目的带来了极大障碍。本文从国内外的语法教学方法入手,研究语法教学的发展过程,介绍我国语法教学的现状。对于语法教学的尴尬现状,在交际教学法的框架下进行探讨。交际教学法以交际能力理论为基础,强调语言学习的最终目的是交际,因此高中英语教学应当在交际课堂中开展。除了提高学生语法知识水平

22、外,更重视对其交际能力的培养,将语言形式与功能的教学有机地结合在一起,让学生从“要我学”变为“我要学”,不仅调动了学生学习的积极性,也在这个过程中有效地对于语法知识进行交际练习。在这样的课堂中,教师应当扮演较之传统课堂怎样不同的角色,学生为主体的地位转换也显得尤为重要。为验证交际教学法在高中英语语法教学过程中的有效性,本文采用教学实验的方法,配合以问卷调查及测试。实验在高二学生中开展,主要针对定语从句及非谓语动词进行学习,为期六周。被试的两个班的学生,一个班接受交际教学法,另一个班的学生接受传统翻译法教学。实验进行前后测试及实验前针对教师及学生的调查问卷。实验主要针对下列三个问题进行探索:1.与传统翻译教学法相比,交际教学法在高中英语课堂中的使用是否

23、更有助于学生对语法的掌握。2.与传统课堂模式相比,采用交际教学法的交际课堂是否能更有效地激发学生学习语言的兴趣。3.在高中语法教学课堂中采用交际法实施教学,是否能提高学生对目的语的听辨能力及使用目的语进行交际的能力。实验学生经过前测证明其学习能力及已有知识水平无统计学意义显著差异,在控制班继续采用传统语法翻译法实施教学,而实验班学生则接受交际教学法。在实验结束时进行后测,对测试结果进行分析后发现:在现有考试测评方式下,交际教学法不仅比传统的教学方法更有助于提高学生的英语语法习得效果,而且更有利于提高其对于语法学习的兴趣和应用目的语言进行交际的能力。In关键词:语法教学,交际能力,交际教学法IInAbstractThereisnodoubtthat

24、grammarplaysanimportantpartinEnglishteachinginhighschool.However,whethertoteachindependentlyandhowtoteachworryalotofteachersforlong,whichhasbeenacontroversialissue.Inthetraditionalclass,theteachermakeuseofquantitiesofexercisestoteachstudentsgrammarrules,whichleadsthatthelanguageknowledgebecomestheaimofteaching,andignoresthehost

25、ofstudentsinclass.Asaresult,Englishlearningchangesintoaprocedureofrememberingpassively,whichhastobeavoided.Thethesisstartsfromvariousteachingmethodsbothinandabroadtoresearchthedevelopmentofgrammarteaching.ItprovestheimportanceofgrammarteachinginhighschooltointroduceofcurrentsituationofgrammarteachinginChina.Asfortheawkwardstatu

26、sofgrammarteaching,thethesisdiscussaboutitundertheframeworkofcommunicativeapproach.Thecommunicativeapproachbasesonthecommunicativecompetenceandputstheemphasisonthecommunicationwhichisthefinalaimoflanguagelearning.Thus,Englishteachinginhighschoolshouldbedevelopedinthecommunicativeclass.Besidestheimprovementofstudents’grammarleve

27、l,theteachershouldpaymoreattentiontotheircommunicativecompetence.Thecombinationoflanguagepatternsandfunctionsmakesstudentslearnactively,whichnotonlyarousesstudents’initiative,butalsopracticethegrammarruleseffectivelyincommunication.Insuchkindofclass,itisveryimportantforteacherstochangetheirtraditionalroleandforstudentstobetheho

28、stsforclass.Inordertoidentifytheeffectofthecommunicativeapproachinteaching,thethesisadoptstheteachingexperiment,accompaniedbythequestionnaireandtests.Theexperimentmainlydiscussesabouttheproblemsasfollows:1.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’Englishgrammarlevelmoreefficientlythantheg

29、rammar-translationmethod?2.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolarouselearninginterestmoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel?3.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’listeningcomprehensionandcommunicativecompetencemoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel

30、?Theexperiment,lastingforsixweeks,wascarriedoutingradetwo,whichfocusesonthegrammarrulesoftheattributiveclauseandnon-predicateverb.StudentsintheexperimenthadnostatisticallysignificantdifferencesinlearningabilityandlanguageleveltellingfromtheIIInpretestresults.Traditionalteachingapproachwasappliedinthecontrolclass,whilethecommun

31、icativeapproachintheexperimentclass.Givingthepost-testattheendoftheexperiment,theauthoranalyzedtheresultsandfoundthat:underthepresentassessment,thecommunicativeapproachisnotonlybeneficialfortheacquisitionofgrammar,butalsoforarousingstudents’interestsingrammar,andthecommunicativecompetenceinEnglish.Keywords:GrammarTeachingCommun

32、icativeCompetenceCommunicativeApproachIVnChapterOneIntroduction1.1ResearchBackgroundThevalueofgrammarinforeignlanguageteachinghasbeenalotofdebatefordecadesandnoconclusionisinsight.Inmostcases,grammarisstillbeingtaught,especiallyinformalclassroomlanguageteaching.Languageteachingshouldnotonlyfocusontheanalysisofsentencestructure

33、andgrammarrules.Thus,onwhichlevelandhowtoteachgrammarbecomesamainproblemfordecadesandtillnow,notaclearanswercomesout.Alogicalextensionoftheargumentcouldshowthisdilemmadirectly:ifcommunicationistheaim,thenitshouldbeTHEmajorelementintheprocess.Thequestioncouldbeput:Areweteachinglanguage(forcommunication)?Areweteachingcommunicatio

34、n(vialanguage)?However,anunchangeablethesisisthatgrammarisessentialforlanguagelearning.Languageknowledgeisthebasisofcommunication,sothefirsttaskistolearnhowtoformandorganizeknowledge.Richards(1986:6)putforwardthebasicrequestsforcommunication,whichfirstlycontainsthatcommunicationmustkeepwiththeidiomsoftargetlanguage.Learnersshou

35、ldaimatthestructureofnativespeakersduringtheprocess,andtheymaymakeprogressintheexpressions,suchasnegation,auxiliaries,interrogative,wordorderandembeddingetc.,whichmayperfecttheirsyntaxsystem.Inbrief,learnerscanestablishtheirgrammaticalability.Infact,onlyasmallnumberofsentencesoriginatedfromgrammaticalabilitycanbereallyappliedin

36、communication,andinstead,communicationismainlyformedfromtheidioms,whichmayrestrictthelearner’sgrammaticalcreativity.Therefore,otherteachersteachallgrammaticalrules,andfinishalotofsomeidiomsinlistening,suchas“afteryou”forceremonialformulae.Gainingthiskindofgrammarability,learnerscandevelopwhatHymes(1972)referredtoas“communicativ

37、ecompetence”,whichcontains:grammarandvocabularyknowledgeofthelanguage;speakingrules;howtouseandrespondtodifferentkindsofspeechacts;appropriateuseforlanguage.Here,thelastonemeanslearnerscanuseproperexpressionsinvarioussituations,whichalsoreferstothefinalaimoflanguageteaching.1.2ResearchProblem1.2.1TheContent1nNowadaysinChina’sf

38、oreignlanguageteaching,therearecommonlytwokindsofteachingphilosophies.Someteachersholdtheopinionthatreadingcantrainstudents’languageability,whichmayresultinthegrammaticalabilityautomatically.Hence,thereisnoneedtoteachgrammar.Othersattachimportancetoteachinggrammar,andgrammarrulesmaybetaughtinspecialclass.Studentscouldmasterthem

39、allandgethighscoreinexamination,whichleadstoaseriousproblemthat“students,whohavereceivedseveralyearsofformalEnglishteaching,frequentlyremaindeficientintheabilitytoactuallyusethelanguage,andtounderstanditsuse,innormalcommunication,whetherinthespokenorthewrittenmode.”(Widdowson,1978:15)Ingeneral,teachingandillustratinggrammarrule

40、sshouldnotbeover-estimatedwhileignoringthesummaryofgrammarstructuresorrulesisnotreasonableinforeignlanguagelearningclass.Theformercan’tgetlearnersfamiliarwiththemeaningofgrammar,thatis,learnersdon’tknowwhytheylearngrammarorwhentheycanusegrammar.Thelattercan’tcontributetolearners’constructingthecompleteformandsystemofgrammar,tha

41、tistosay,learnersmaybeawarethatcertaingrammarshouldbeemployedinthiscommunicativecontext,buttheycan’tappealtotheaccuratelanguageformforexpression,resultinginnotgettingthemselvesacross.Sointhepapertheauthorattemptstoproveanddemonstratethecommunicativeapproachingrammarteachingiseffectiveinlearners’grammarskillsandcommunicativeabil

42、ity.Theconcreteproblemsthatneededtobesolvedfocuson:1.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’Englishgrammarlevelmoreefficientlythanthegrammar-translationmethod?2.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolarouselearninginterestmoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmode

43、l?3.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’listeningcomprehensionandcommunicativecompetencemoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel?So,asforteachers,beforeteaching,theyshouldmakeitclearthatwhattheaimisforclass.Ur.(1996:81)oncepointedoutsomeimportantteachingskillsforteachers:“Theprobl

44、emisfirsttounderstandyourselfwhatisinvolvedin‘knowing’thestructure,andinparticularwhatislikelytocausedifficultiestothelearners;andsecond,howtopresentexamplesandformulateexplanationsthatwillclearlyconveythenecessaryinformation.”1.2.2TheOriginInmorethanacentury,traditionalgrammar-translationmethodplayedtheleadingroleinEnglishgram

45、marteachinginChina,whichresultedintheunsatisfactoryresultforthe2nimprovementsofstudents’communicativecompetence.Italwaysattributestoteachersinsecondaryschool.TheyjusttellstudentswhatisEnglishandmostofEnglishprinciples,butnotthefunctionofEnglish.People’sattentiononteachingmethodschangingtocommunicationwasatthebeginningof1970s.“

46、Initiallythiswaslargelyamatterofredefiningwhatthestudenthadtolearnintermsofcommunicativecompetenceratherthanlinguisticcompetence:abilitytousethelanguageappropriatelyratherthantheknowledgeofgrammaticalrulesimpliedintheacademicstyleorthe‘habit’oftheaudio-lingual.”(Cook,1996:184)“Theassumptionisthatifonlyteacherscouldbepersuadedto

47、putthisapproachintopractice,thentheproblemwoulddisappear.Itisseldomthatthevalidityoftherecommendedapproachisthattherootoftheproblemistobefound,infact,intheapproachitself.”(Widdowson,1978:19)In1992,afunctionalsyllabuswasintroduced,inwhichthecommunicativeteachingaimwasrecommendedandthecommunicativefunctionsaswell.Cook(1996:184)de

48、scribedthesituationas“Recently,communicationisoftenseenmoreintermsoftheprocessthatpeopleusetocarryoutspecificcommunicativetasks;hence,thesyllabusesaredesignedaroundtheprocessesortasksthatthestudentsusedintheclassroom.”Thiskindofsyllabusrequiresteacherstosetthecommunicativeteachingasthemainprocessinlanguageteachingclass,duringwh

49、ichsometypesofcommunicativeactivitiesareused.Nowadays,languageteachingisjustservedasthetoolforCollegeEntranceExamination,andignoresthecommunicativeaims,sostudentsmaygethighscoreofvocabulary,grammar,andwriting,butcannotspeakorlistenfluently,whichshouldbemostimportant.Englishteachingistoteachstudentshowtocommunicate,andtotrainstu

50、dents’languageability.Besides,thereisakindofteachingmethodcalled“grammarabatement”inhighschool,whichmeansmoreandmoreteachersprefernottohaveindependentgrammarclass.Inthispaper,thewriterattachesimportancetogrammarteaching,especiallyincommunicativeapproach,whichseeminglyhasnothingtodowitheachother.Lackofgrammarlearningwillinfluenc

51、ethecommunicativecompetence,sothispapertendstodrawhighschoolteachersattentiontogrammarandcommunicationwiththetargetlanguage.Tosumup,grammarteachingmustsolvethreedimensionsoflanguage:formorstructures;meaning;useorfunctions.Thesethreecannotbeisolatedfromeachother-justasthefollowingpictures(Larsen-Freeman,2003)illustrated-orelse,l

52、earnerscannotachievethegoaloflanguagelearning.3nFORMMEANINGHowisitformed?Whatdoesitmean?USEWhen/Whyisitused?MeaningForm●Phonemes●Words●Grammatical●DerivationalmorphemesMorphemes●Syntactic●MultiwordLexicalstringspatterns●NotionsUse●Socialfunctions●DiscoursepatternsFigure1.1AThree-DimensionalGrammarFramework4n1.3StructureThisth

53、esisconsistsoffivechapters.Chapteroneisintroductionanditstatesthebackgroundandtheobjectiveofthestudy.Chaptertwoisliteraturereviewrelevanttothekeywords,includingsomebasicconceptsofgrammarteachingandcommunicativeapproach,andtheircurrentsituationsaswell.Chapterthreeismethodologymainlyincludingtheparticipants,instruments,materials,

54、proceduresandanalysisofteachingexperiment.Chapterfourpresentsthestatisticanalysisandthediscussionoftheresultsandshowstheimplicationsandsomelimitationsofthestudyandgivessomesuggestions.Chapterfiveistheconclusion.5nChapterTwoLiteratureReview2.1GrammarandGrammarTeaching2.1.1TheDefinitionofGrammarAstheWikipediaexplains,grammaristh

55、esetofstructuralrulesthatgovernsthecompositionofclauses,phrases,andwordsinanygivennaturallanguage.Thetermrefersalsotothestudyofsuchrules,andthisfieldincludesmorphology,syntax,andphonology,oftencomplementedbyphonetics,semantics,andpragmatics.Linguistsdonotnormallyusethetermtorefertoorthographicalrules,althoughusagebooksandstyleg

56、uidesthatcallthemselvesgrammarsmayalsorefertospellingandpunctuation.“Grammarissomethingdefinedasthewaywordsareputtogethertomakecorrectsentences.”(Ur,1996:75)DianeLarsen-FreemanregardsEnglishgrammarnotonlyasasetofstructuralpatterns,butalsoanimportantresourceformakingmeaningandforadaptinglanguageappropriatelytothecommunicativecon

57、text.InTheLongmanDictionaryofContemporaryEnglish(Longman,1995),grammardefinesas“thestudyandpracticeoftherulesbywhichwordschangetheirformsandarecombinedintosentences”.Halliday(2004)regardedgrammarasthestudyofhowsyntax(form),semantics(meaning),andpragmatics(use)worktogethertoenableindividualstocommunicatethroughlanguage.2.1.2TheI

58、mportanceofTeachingGrammarStern(1992:141)summarizeddifferentkindsofgrammarteachingviews,anddividedthemintothreetypes.Peoplewhoareagainstgrammarteachingthinkthatthegrammaranalysismakesnosenseofimprovingthelanguageusingabilities,whichistheirreasonforbeingagainstanykindsofgrammarteaching.Groupsinfavorofteachinggrammarintheprocesso

59、flanguagelearningthinkthatthekeytolanguageteachingisgrammar.PaulstonansdBruder(1976:324)putitdirectlyas:thetraditionalgrammarrulesanditsusageinpatterndrillsarealwaystheunshakablecentreduringlanguagestudying.Neutralgroupsdon’ttakesidesonthepositivemeaningsofgrammarteachingnortheoveremphasisonit.Theyformtheirownideasbetweentheabo

60、vetwo.Stern(1992:12)hastheopinionthatgrammarteachingisalwaysthenecessaryconditionforlanguageteachingforthetraditionalviews.Rutherford(1987)putsitasfollows:grammaristhekeyallthewhile,orsynonym,Ishouldsay,forforeignlanguageteachingduring25,000yearsbefore.6nSweet(2010:24)oncesaid,“Foreigners’Englishoften(is)constructedonstrictgra

61、mmaticalprinciples,but(with)hardlyasinglegenuinelyEnglishsentenceinit.”Grammarshouldbeusedtoconveythoughts,tocommunicate,butnot“worship”.ThewriterthinksthatgrammaristheinevitablepartinEnglishteaching,whichcanbeprovedduringthehistoryofforeignlanguageteaching.Thefourmainpartsoflistening,speaking,readingandwritingareallbasedongram

62、mar,whichshowsitsimportance.Astheresult,grammarappearseverywhere,whichleadsstudentstostudy,touseandtofollowaswell.2.1.3GrammarTeachingundertheDominatedTeachingMethodsTheapproachestoteachinggrammarvaryfromdifferentperiods.Grammartranslationmethod,asthefirstandalsothemostancientsystematicEFLTmethod,hasdominatedforeignlanguageteac

63、hingforhundredsofyears.Itemphasizesontheexplicitgrammarteaching,whichisbasedonsentences.Inthemiddleof20thcentury,grammartranslationmethodresignedfortheaudio-lingualmethod,whichpaidmoreattentiontopatterndrills.Astheresult,implicitgrammarteachingreplaced.After1970’s,foreignlanguageteachingcametocommunicativemethod,whichcenteredon

64、thecommunicationinallkindsofteachingactivities.Theinteractivepairsandgroupsforstudentsisthemosttypicalteachingmodal.Fromthenon,grammarteachingdrewlessattentionthanbefore.GrammarTranslationMethodThetypicalarrangementofalessonisa“statementoftherule,followedbyvocabularylistandtranslationexercise.”(Wang,2001:337)Attheend,aconcerned

65、passageshouldbetranslated.Thedeductivemethodreliesonreasoning,analyzingandcomparing.First,theteacherwritesanexampleontheboardordrawsattentiontoanexampleinthetextbook.Thenteachersexplaintheunderlyingrulesregardingtheformsandpositionsofcertainstructuralwords.Theexplanationsareoftendoneinthestudent’snativetongueandusinggrammatical

66、terms.Moreattentionispaidtotheformofthesentencesbeingtranslatedthantotheircontent.Whenstudentsreachmoreadvancedlevelsofachievement,theymaytranslateentiretextsfromthetargetlanguage.Testsoftenconsistofthetranslationofclassicaltexts.Thereisnotusuallyanylisteningorspeakingpractice,andverylittleattentionisplacedonpronunciationoranyc

67、ommunicativeaspectsofthelanguage.Theskillexercisedisreading,andthenonlyinthecontextoftranslation.“Itismainlyabook-orientedmethodofworkingoutandlearningthegrammaticalsystemofthelanguage.Targetlanguageisregardedasasystemofrulestobeobservedintextsand7nsentences.”(Wang,2001:338)Learnersshouldrememberalltheexplanationofthegrammarfr

68、omteachersandfinishtherelatedexercisescorrectly.Asaresult,learnerscandotranslationbetweenthefirstandsecondlanguage.Themainshortcomingliesinthe“overemphasisonthelanguageasamassofrulesandinthelimitationsofpracticetechniques.”(Wang,2001:339)What’smore,it’sdifficultforlearnerstorecitesomanyrules.Inaddition,“itputstoomuchemphasisonr

69、eadingandwritingandneglectslisteningandspeaking,viewinglearningaforeignlanguageasmerelylearningaboutthelanguage.”(Wang,2001:340)“Ithasnoadvocates.Itisamethodforwhichthereisnotheory.Thereisnoliteraturethatoffersarationaleorjustificationforitorthatattemptstorelateittoissuesinlinguistics,psychology,oreducationaltheory.”(Richard,19

70、86:5)However,grammar-translationstillplaysanimportantorinevitableroleinforeignlanguageteaching.Inspiteofthestrong“hurt”thatreformershavegiven,grammar-translationmethodisrelativelyeasytobeemployedinlanguageteaching.Ithassomeimportantcharacteristicsasfollows:“1.Classesaretaughtinthemothertongue,withlittleactiveuseofthetargetlangu

71、age.2.Muchvocabularyistaughtintheformoflistsofisolatedwords.3.Longelaborateexplanationsoftheintricaciesofgrammararegiven.4.Grammarprovidestherulesforputtingwordstogether,andinstructionoftenfocusesontheformandinflectionofwords.5.Readingofdifficultclassicaltextsisbegunearly.6.Littleattentionispaidtothecontentoftexts,whicharetreat

72、edasexercisesingrammaticalanalysis.7.Oftentheonlydrillsareexercisesintranslatingdisconnectedsentencesfromthetargetlanguageintothemothertongue.8.Littleornoattentionisgiventopronunciation.”(Prator,1979:3)DirectMethodThereformofgrammar-translationmethodhappenedfrom1850,andthemostusualtermforthevariousfeaturesofmewmethodswas“direct

73、method”.“Thedevelopmentofthedirectmethodiscloselylinkedwiththeintroductionofphoneticsintolanguagepedagogy.Bothphoneticsandthedirectmethodemphasizetheuseofthespokenlanguage.”(Wang,2001:340)Grammaristaughtbyusinginductivemethods.Intheinductivemethod,theteacherintroducesthelearnerstorealizegrammarruleswithoutanyformofexplicitexpla

74、nation.Itisbelievedthatruleswillbecomeevidentifstudentsaregivenenoughappropriateexamples.For8nexample,theteacherwillfirstholdupabook,saying“Thisisabook.”Hewilldothesamefollowingotherobjects.Thentheteacherholdsupseveralbooksandsays“Thesearebooks”.Afterseveralsimilarexamples,itishopedthatstudentswillunderstand“Theseare”isusedwit

75、hpluralformsofnouns.Thenstudentsareinvitedtoapplythenewlylearnedstructuretoproducesentenceswithgivenvisualaidsorverbalprompts.Teacherstrytosaynothingexcepttocorrectwhennecessary.“Languageteachinginthepresentcentury,forexample,theaudio-lingualandaudiovisualmethodsinthe50sand60s,adoptedmanyofthetechniquesfirstdevelopedbydirectmet

76、hod.”(Wang,2001:341-342)However,twoproblemsarose.Thefirstonewashowtomakesurethatlearnershadnomisunderstandingwithouttranslationtotheirmothertongueduringteaching.Thesecondishowtoapplythiskindofteachingmethodbothintheprimaryandadvancedlearners.Thedirectmethodisasignoflanguagechangeformwrittentospoken,buttheendisthesameasothers,wh

77、ichislanguageteaching.Thebasisofitistheteachingofphoneticsand“ascientificallyestablishedcoherentgrammar.”Meanwhile,languageteachingissimilartofirstlanguageacquisition.Hence,thetextexplainedbytheteacherinclassissimple,speciallymadeupofnarrative.Tosumup,characteristicfeaturesofthedirectmethodare:1.teachingconceptsandvocabularythr

78、oughpantomiming,real-lifeobjectsandothervisualmaterials2.teachinggrammarbyusinganinductiveapproach(i.e.havinglearnersfindoutrulesthroughthepresentationofadequatelinguisticformsinthetargetlanguage)3.centralityofspokenlanguage(includinganative-likepronunciation)4.focusonquestion-answerpatternsAudio-lingualMethodItoriginatedfromAm

79、erica,andhadalargeeffectonmostpartsoftheworld.Likethedirectmethod,theaudio-lingualmethodadvisedthatstudentsbetaughtalanguagedirectly,withoutusingthestudents"nativelanguagetoexplainnewwordsorgrammarinthetargetlanguage.However,unlikethedirectmethod,theaudio-lingualmethoddidn’tfocusonteachingvocabulary.Rather,theteacherdrille

80、dstudentsintheuseofgrammar.Theinstructorwouldpresentthecorrectmodelofasentenceandthestudentswouldhaveto9nrepeatit.Theteacherwouldthencontinuebypresentingnewwordsforthestudentstosampleinthesamestructure.Inaudio-lingualism,thereisnoexplicitgrammarinstruction—everythingissimplymemorizedinform.Inthismanner,thelessonsarebuiltonstat

81、icdrillsinwhichthestudentshavelittleornocontrolontheirownoutput;theteacherisexpectingaparticularresponseandnotprovidingthatwillresultinastudentreceivingnegativefeedback.Thistypeofactivity,forthefoundationoflanguagelearning,isindirectoppositionwithcommunicativelanguageteaching.“Itstheoryisaninterpretationoflanguagelearninginterm

82、sofstimulusandresponse,operantconditioningandreinforcementwithanemphasisonsuccessfulerror-freelearninginsmallwell-preparedstepsandstages.”(Wang,2001:343)Listeningandspeakingareputahead,asaresult,dialoguesaremainlyusedinteaching.Besides,languagelaboratoryisaregulartechnique,includingtapesandlanguagelabs.Differentfromthegrammar-t

83、ranslationmethod,grammarispaidlittleattentionto.Throughdialoguememorizationandimitation,learnerscanimprovetheirspeakingandlistening.Thelanguageteachingtheorydevelopsatthisstagemainlyaccordingtolinguisticandpsychologicalprinciples.What’smore,itmakeslanguageteachingoutofclassroompossible.Apartfromvocabularyandmorphology,italsopay

84、sattentiontosyntax.Finally,languageskillsareseparatelytaught.Meanwhile,becauseoftheweaktheoreticalbasis,teachingmaterialstendtobeboringtolearners.CommunicativeTeachingApproachAlthoughthegrammartranslationmethodandtheaudio-lingualmethodnowwidelyinfluencethewholeforeignlanguageteaching,from1970’s,thecommunicativemethodbegantoplay

85、adominantrole,anditalsopermeatestoeacharea.The“communicativeapproachtotheteachingofforeignlanguages”—alsoknownasCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(CLT)orthe“communicativeapproach”—emphasizeslearningalanguagethroughgenuinecommunication.Learninganewlanguageiseasierandmoreenjoyablewhenitistrulymeaningful.Practisingquestionformsbyasking

86、learnerstofindoutpersonalinformationabouttheircolleaguesisanexampleofthecommunicativeapproach,asitinvolvesmeaningfulcommunication.Classroomactivitiesguidedbythecommunicativeapproacharecharacterisedbytryingtoproducemeaningfulandrealcommunication,atalllevels.10nAsaresulttheremaybemoreemphasisonskillsthansystems,lessonsaremorelea

87、rner-centred,andtheremaybeuseofauthenticmaterials.Classroomactivitiesusedincommunicativelanguageteachingcanincludethefollowing:Role-play,Interviews,Informationgap,Games,Languageexchanges,Surveys,Pair-work,Learningbyteaching.However,notallcoursesthatutilizetheCommunicativeLanguageapproachwillrestricttheiractivitiessolelytothese.

88、Somecourseswillhavethestudentstakeoccasionalgrammarquizzes,orprepareathomeusingnon-communicativedrillsThecommunicativeapproachisaflexiblemethodratherthanarigorouslydefinedsetofteachingpractices.Itcanbestbedefinedwithalistofgeneralprinciples.InCommunicativeLanguageTeaching(1991),expertDavidNunanliststhesefivebasiccharacteristics

89、:1.Anemphasisonlearningtocommunicatethroughinteractioninthetargetlanguage.2.Theintroductionofauthentictextsintothelearningsituation.3.Theprovisionofopportunitiesforlearnerstofocus,notonlyonlanguagebutalsoonthelearningprocessitself.4.Anenhancementofthelearner’sownpersonalexperiencesasimportantcontributingelementstoclassroomlearn

90、ing.5.Anattempttolinkclassroomlanguagelearningwithlanguageactivitiesoutsidetheclassroom.“It’smoreaneclecticcollectionofemphasisintheteachingoflanguagedrawnformmanysourcesthattendtopromoteorleadtoteachingandlearningofalanguageasandforcommunication.”Inotherwords,usingismoreimportantthanlearningrulesforthismethod,andcommunicativec

91、ompetenceisitsfinalaim.Communicativelanguageteachingmethodasksforhighcommunicativecompetenceofteachers.What’smore,teachersshouldactasinitiatorsinsteadoflanguageresource.Meanwhile,studentsshouldtakemoreactivepartintheactivitiesthaneverbefore.Asforteachingmaterials,theyshouldbemoreauthenticforcommunication.2.1.4PresentStatusofGra

92、mmarTeachingDifferentteachershavedifferentviewsaboutwhetherornottoteachgrammarinlanguageclasses.Afewteachersthinkuselessinteachinggrammar,andafewstudentsthinkboringin11ngrammarteachinglessons.ForeignlanguageteachinginChinahassuchatypicalmodelforalongtime,whichincludesfiveparts:organize,review,teach,consolidateandassign.Teacher

93、s,classroomandtextbookarethecentre,andgrammar,vocabularyanddrillsaretheemphasis.Inthemeantime,students’communicativecompetenceisignored.Asforthecommunicationmodel,Professor.WuHeping(1997)classifiesitas“Communication-Communication”and“Practice-Communication”.Theformergivesteacherschancestodiscoverandanalyzeproblemsinstudents’com

94、municationbasedontheirpastknowledgeandability,thenpractiseaccordingly,andreturntocommunicationtoconsolidatethelanguagepoints.Thismodelprovidesstudentsmoreopportunitiestocommunicate,however,iftheylacklanguageinputandpresentation,itwillbeatrapofconfusion.Soadequatelanguageinputisessentialforthiskind.Themainproblemsofsecondlanguag

95、eteachinginChina’sclassroomisasfollows:onlyinstructcommonprinciples,butnotrareones;spendtoomuchtimeonlessusefulandimportantpoints;explainthegrammarindependently;alwaysrelyonteachers’explanationwithoutenoughteachingequipment;focustoomuchontheinevitablemistakesduringlearning.“Totheteacher,grammarseemstobedifficulttobeexplained,un

96、interestingtoteach,andtheresultsappeartobeunsatisfactory.Tothestudents,grammarisoftenveryconfusing,hardtogetright,anditexposeshiserrorswithoutseemingtobeofmuchpracticalhelp.”(Liu,2004:35)Althoughthegrammartranslationmethodandtheaudio-lingualmethodnowwidelyinfluencethewholeforeignlanguageteaching,from1970’s,thecommunicativemetho

97、dbegantoplayadominantrole,anditalsopermeatestoeacharea.Now,manyteachersprefer“startingwithacommunicativeactivitysuchastaskorcontent-basedmaterial.ThegrammarthatistaughtisnotscheduledinadvanceasitiswithPPPapproachbutrathersupportsstudentsintheircompletionofthecommunicativetaskortheirmakingsenseofaparticularcontentarea.Inaddition

98、,oralternately,teachersrespondtogrammarerrorsthatstudentscommitwhenengagedincommunication.Assuch,itreversesthenormalsequence,puttingcommunicationfirst,ratherthanselectingandpresentingagrammarstructureinadvanceofitsuseincontext.”(Freeman,2003:256)2.2CommunicativeApproachThecommunicativeapproachmainlyreferstolanguageteachingwhich

99、adoptstheSemanticSyllabus,andthelearners’communicativecompetence.SemanticSyllabuswasoriginallyregardedasWilkins’Notional-FunctionalSyllabus,whichwascharacterizedastheorganization12nofcontentsinsemanticmeaningandlanguagefunctionbasedonstudents’practicalcommunicativeneeds.Itismadeupofneedsanalysis,notionandfunction,andlanguageme

100、thodstoexpress.Wilkins(1974)differentiatesitasfollows:theGrammarSyllabusfocusesonhowtosay,theSituationalSyllabusconcentratesonwhenandwheretotalk,whiletheNotional-FunctionalSyllabuspaysmoreattentiontowhattosay.2.2.1CommunicativeCompetenceFromWikipedia,communicativecompetenceisaterminlinguisticswhichreferstoalanguageuser"sgr

101、ammaticalknowledgeofsyntax,morphology,phonologyandthelike,aswellassocialknowledgeabouthowandwhentouseutterancesappropriately.“Chomskynamedthisability‘competence’.Thecodechangedintodiscourseintheuseofspecificlanguagesituationswhichhecalled‘performance’.”(Zhang&Huang,2002:421)Inhistheoryoftransformational-generativegrammar,he

102、distinguishedbetweenlinguisticcompetenceandlinguisticperformance.Theformerreferstothenativespeaker’sknowledgeoflanguagesystem,whilethelatterreferstolanguageuse.What’smore,“competence”ismorestablethan“performance”,becauseperformanceisalwaysinfluencedbypsychologicalandsocialfactors.Asaresult,wecannotjudgealearner’scompetencebyhis

103、performances.AfterChomskyexplainstherelationshipamongcompetenceandperformance,deepandsurfacestructure,hepromotestwonewpointsonthetheoryofforeignlanguageteaching:“learningmustbebasedonunderstanding,andanalysisofauthenticmeaningofthesurfacestructure”,(Zhang&Huang,2002:421)whichmeansthechangesfromlinguisticformtomeaning.Chomsk

104、y’stheoryseemsasthebasisfortheworkofmanylinguists.However,itwascriticizedbyothersbecauseofhisattentiononlytotheabstractsystemofgrammaticalrules,andtheignoranceofthepracticaluseoflanguage.In1960’sHymes,inordertoincludethelanguageuseability,reactingtoChomsky’scharacterizationofthelinguisticcompetenceofthe“idealnativespeaker”,putf

105、orwardtheterm“communicativecompetencetorepresenttheuseoflanguageinsocialcontext,ortheobservanceofsociolinguisticnormsofappropriacy.”(Sandra,2006:16),whichconnectslanguagelearningto“sociolinguisticactivity”.HymespointedouttheshortcomingofChomsky’stheory,whichwasignoringtheinfluencesofsocialcontext,withoutwhichlanguagecannotexist

106、.Consequently,Hymesgavesupporttocommunicativecompetence,whichcontainedfouraspects13nbasedbothonknowledgeandabilityoflanguage.a)“whethertobeable(andtowhatdegree)toknowtheagreementoflanguageformandgrammaticalrules.b)Whethertobeable(andtowhatdegree)toknowhowtouseandrespondtodifferenttypesofspeechacts.c)Whether(andtowhatdegree)ana

107、cceptablelanguageformisappropriateinrelationtocontextinwhichitisusedandevaluated.d)Whethertobeable(andtowhatdegree)toknowtherequestuseoflanguageforms.”(Zhang&Huang,2002:423)Thethirdoneisthecentreamongtheothers.Hymesbelievedthatlanguageapplicationrulesweretheresultofsociolinguisticactivities.Hiscentralideais“languagebehavior

108、”,andincludesnotonlythegrammaticalrules,butalsotheappropriatenesstothecontext.Hymes(1971seeHuZhuanglin2001:357)proposescommunicativecompetence,“whichhasfourcomponents:Possibility-theabilitytoproducegrammaticalsentences;Feasibility–theabilitytoproducesentenceswhichcanbedecodedbythehumanbrain;Appropriateness–theabilitytousecorrec

109、tformsoflanguageinaspecificsocio-culturalcontext;Performance–thefactthattheutteranceiscompleted.”Inhisview,learnersgainknowledgeofsentences“notonlyasgrammaticalbutalsoasappropriate.”CanaleandSwain(1980)definedcommunicativecompetenceintermsofthreecomponents:grammaticalcompetence(wordsandrules),sociolinguisticcompetence(appropria

110、teness),andstrategiccompetence(appropriateuseofcommunicationstrategies).SandraSavignonbelievesthatthelearners’communicativecompetencemakesupofgrammaticalcompetence,discoursecompetence,socioculturalcompetence,andstrategiccompetence.“Grammaticalcompetencereferstosentence-levelgrammaticalforms,theabilitytorecognizethelexical,morph

111、ological,syntactic,andphonologicalfeatureofalanguageandtomakeuseofthesefeaturestointerpretandformwordsandsentences.”(Savignon,2006:17)Sothegrammaticalcompetenceisnot“stating”but“using”rules.Tosumup,aforeignlanguageisakindoftoolsforcommunication.Thus,attentionshouldbepaidonpracticaluse,andteacherscannotseparateverbalactionfromsi

112、tuationswhichisconnectedwithsocietyandculture.What’smore,someotherelementsshouldbealsoconcerned14nforlanguageteaching,suchaspsychologicalelementanddailylife.2.2.2TwoVersionsofCommunicativeApproach“’Doingthingsthroughlanguage’isjustthelatestpropositionabouttheCommunicativeApproach.However,theexactconnotationoftheCommunicativeAp

113、proachhasastrongversionandaweakone.”(Zhang&Huang,2002:414)Theformeroneadvocatesthatlanguageisakindofdemandduringcommunication,whichcanstimulatelanguageandimprovelanguagesystem.Thatistosaypeoplecanmasteralanguageduringcommunicationinsteadoflearningforcommunication.JustasKrashen(1976:38)said,“Languagelearningisakindofacquisit

114、ionunderthemostnaturalandauthenticsituation”,whichmeanstoimprovethecommunicativeabilityinthisprocedure.“Students’knowledgeofthetargetlanguageistheoutcomeofcommunicativeactivity.”(Zhang&Huang,2002:415)ThatiswhysomepeoplesayachildwithoutanybasesofEnglishcanlearnverywellabroadinamonthortwo,becauseheisforcedtocommunicateindaily

115、life.Socontentsforcommunicationinreallifeshouldbeincludedinthetextbooks.“Theweakversionclaimsthatlearningistofacilitatecommunication,soknowledgeisuseful.”(Zhang&Huang,2002:416)That’stosayprovidethelearnerswithchancesofusingEnglishtocommunicateandcharacteristicallyattempttointegratesuchactivitiesintoawiderprogramoflanguagete

116、aching.Sowhenthestructuresaretaughtcarefully,studentscanimproveabilitiestousethem.Fromthedefinitionofit,wecaninferthatcommunicationistheaimforlearningEnglish,whichseparateslearningandusing.“Theproblemisthatlearners,especiallythoseindevelopingcountrieswhohavelearnedEnglishformallyforseveralyearsarestilllackingabilitytousethelang

117、uagepracticallyandareunabletounderstanditsuseinrealcommunication,whetherinspokenorwrittenwork.”(Wilddowson,1978)SoteacherstendtoputstudentsinanEnglishenvironmenttohelpthempromotetheabilitiestousethelanguage.Therefore,there’remoreandmoreoriginalpassagesanddialoguefromnativespeakersbeingfiledintothetextbooks.2.2.3SomeTeachingMode

118、lsofCommunicativeApproachLittlewood(2000:1)said“oneofthemostcharacteristicfeaturesofcommunicativelanguageteachingisthatitpayssystematicattentiontofunctionalaswellasstructuralaspectsof15nlanguage”.Thefollowingactivitiescanmakeitclearly.StructuralpracticePre-communicativeCommunicativeactivitiesQuasi-communicativeactivitiesActivi

119、tiesCommunicativeFunctional-communicativeactivitiesActivitiesSocial-interactionactivitiesLittlewooddefineditastwostages,whichispre-communicativeactivitiesandcommunicativeactivities.Teachersmayexplainsomeknowledgeandskillsseparatelyandgivelearnerschancestopractiseinthefirststageandinthesecondstage,learnershavetoawakenandcombinea

120、lloftheknowledgeandskillsinthefirststage,whichmayresultinthelackofcommunicativeability.Astheresult,someteachingmodelsandtextbooksunderthecommunicativeapproachappear.1.Wildowson’ssyllabus,which“ischaracterizedbysuchfactsthatlanguageteachingisbasedoncommunicationandopposedtosystematizationandgradation.”Inhissyllabus,hepreferstote

121、achdifferentlearnersforrespectivepurposes.“Withadefinitepurpose,histextsarewellconstructedandcanmeettheneedsofdifferentstudents.Hebelievesthattheteacher’sleadingroleistoprepareteachingmaterialssoastoinstructstudentstocommunicateinpracticeconsciously.”(ZhangandHuang,2002:418)2.ActivitiesbyC.N.Candlin.BecauseCandlinandSinclairthi

122、nkthatthemostimportantpartforlanguagelearningis“communicativeactivities”,syllabusshouldbemadeupofthem,whicharefrooriginalcontext.“Theydisagreewiththeproposalofusinglanguageforthepurposeofcommunication,butagreethatofusinglanguagetolearn.”(ZhangandHuang,2002:418)So“fake”conversationsshouldnotbecontained.3.M.A.Halliday’ssystematic

123、grammarasaninitiatorofsystematicgrammar.Hedisagreeswiththeitemof“communicativecompetence”,anddemonstratedforthefirsttimethecoherentphenomenoninlanguageteaching.“Cohesionisonedimensionofrelatingelementsofgrammaticalstructuretotheiruseindiscourse.Therefore,Hallidaylaysemphasisontheteachingofconnectiveconstruction,parenthesis,conj

124、unctionsandellipticalphrases.”(ZhangandHuang,2002:419)4.EnglishforSpecialPurpose(ESP),whichmeansmeetvariouskindsofpurposefor16nusingEnglishsuchasforeigntrade,art,cateringindustryetc.“ThecontentsoftheEnglishteachingsyllabuswereshiftingfromdescriptionofdefinition,explanationandrhetoricalanalysistocommunicativecompetencedevelopme

125、ntintheuseoflanguageandthiswassupposedtomeetwithstudents’practicalneeds.”(ZhangandHuang,2002:420)Then,ESPandtheCommunicativeApproachsupporteachother,thatis,theformeroneisonepartofthelatter.5.Balancedactivitiesapproachappearedin1983,whichincludesbothnon-communicativeandcommunicativeactivities.Itrequiresteacherstobe“flexible”incl

126、ass,whichmeansteachershavetomeetanykindsofinterestsfromstudents.Mitchell(2000:297)“presentsausefulsetofresearch-basedgeneralprincipleswhichcanguidetheteachingofgrammarinsecond/foreignlanguageclassrooms:1grammarteachingshouldbeplannedandsystematic,drivenbyastrategicvisionofeventualdesiredoutcomes;2grammarteachingshouldneverthele

127、ssbe‘roughtuned’,offeringlearnersatslightlydifferentstagesarangeofopportunitiestoaddincrementstotheirgrammarunderstanding;3grammarteachingmayinvolveacceptanceofclassroomcodeswitchingandmothertongueuse,atleastwithbeginners;4grammarteachingshouldbe‘littleandoften’,withmuchredundancyandrevisitingofissues;5text-based,problem-solvin

128、ggrammaractivitiesmaybeneededtodeveloplearners’active,articulatedknowledgeaboutgrammar;6activecorrectivefeedbackandelicitationwillpromotelearners’activecontrolofgrammar;7grammarteachingneedstobesupportedandembeddedinmeaning-orientedactivitiesandtasks,whichgiveimmediateopportunitiesforpracticeanduse.”2.2.4MisconceptionsandImprov

129、ementsofCommunicativeApproachAlthoughmanylinguistsandteachersacceptthecommunicativeapproachasausefulandeffectivemethodinforeignlanguageteachingclassroom,therearestillsomeconceptionsaboutit.Mr.LiuJingzhong(1996)summarizedasfollows:1.Thecommunicativeapproachmeansnogrammarteaching.17nThisisthemostinveterateandharmfulmisunderstand

130、ing.Ontheotherhand,Prabhu(1987)thoughtnecessarygrammarforcommunicationwassocomplexthatcouldn’tbetaught.Onetheotherhand,Krashen(1988)believedgrammarshouldn’tbeinstructedthroughwordsandexplanations,butacquireconsciouslywhilelearnthetargetlanguage.Thestudyproceduremaybemoreeffectiveaftertheycan“talk”aboutwhatthey’velearned,because

131、thiskindofdiscussionwillbethebeginningofknowledgeinternalization.2.Orallanguageistheonlycontentofthecommunicativeapproach.Thesameastheotherapproachesbefore,thecommunicativeoneisinfluencedbytheopinionaboutthefirstplacefororallanguage.Besides,whentheemphasisisputoncommunication,it’snaturaltoconsiderwhatandwhytocommunicate.Another

132、reasonforthismisunderstandingistheemphasisonagreatamountofpractice.Themajormethodofitispairworkforstudentstotalkwitheachother,whilelesswordsformteachers.However,communicationmeansnotonlytalksorspeakerbutalsowrittenpatternsandmorethantwopeople,i.e.bothreadingandtalkingbelongtocommunication.Thecommunicativeapproachencouragesstude

133、ntstoparticipateincommunicationonalltypesofoccasions,includingparticipationofthinking.3.Thecommunicativeapproachmeanspair-workonly.Thereasonforitisnottheemphasison“pairwork”itself,butthelimitofitsrange,whichequalsto“roleplay.”Thecommunicativeapproachconsistentlyadvocatesgivingstudentstheirownership,butmostofthetextbooksrestrict

134、students’choicesintosomegivenrulesandrequirements,sowhatstudentscanonlydoistotrytheirbesttoworkoutallthequestions.Infact,manytheoristsandteachershavealwaysbeenappealedfornecessarygrammarinordertocommunicateeffectively.“Itwillalsobegenerallyagreed,perhaps,thattraditionallythefocusofattentionhasbeenonlinguisticskillsandthatithasc

135、ommonlybeensupposedthatoncetheseareacquiredinreasonablemeasurethecommunicativeabilitieswillfollowasamoreorlessautomaticconsequence.”(Widdoson,1978:67)However,therearealsosomelinguistshavenewideasandimprovementsfortheabove.Mr.XinBin(2003:45-48)believestheremaybefourkindsofmethodstoimproveinourcountry.1.Thetwostageapproachpromote

136、dbyWilkins(1974)18nWilkinsadvocatesthatformsandfunctionsoflanguageteachingshouldbetreatedseparately,whichmeansimpartingallthegrammarbeforedealingwiththefunctions.2.Theladder-spiralapproachBrumfit(2000)putsforwardthiskindofapproachas“centeredwithgrammarsystem,dividedintoladderstages,connectedtootherimportantmaterials,andthespir

137、alsurroundinggrammarincludesnotion,functionandsituation.”Themainproblemthisapproachfacesishowtointegratethespiralandladderinasystematicwayinsteadofscrapingtogetherrandomly.3.ThevariablefocusapproachAllen(1980)putsitasthreeparts:structurefocusesongrammar,functionconcentratesonlinguisticfunctionsanddiscoursecharacteristics,andins

138、trumentstressesthepracticalapplicationoflanguage,whichcorrespondtostudents’communicativecompetence.Thestructuralpracticeoflanguageteachingshouldbestrengthenedatthelowlevel,thefictionalpracticeatthemiddlelevel,andinstrumental.Thisapproachisthemostflexibleamongtheabovethree,asitspecifiesthekeypointsofteachingaccordingtothestudent

139、s’levelwhilegiveconsiderationtobothcompletenessandcomplexityofthelanguageapplication.4.TheproceduralapproachPrabhu(1987)proposesitthatdrawingstudents’attentiontosemanticsisthebestwaytobuildgrammarcompetence,whichisbyparticipationoflargenumberoflanguageactivities.Thiskindofmethodabandonstheentiretraditionalsyllabus.Althoughitove

140、rcomesdifficultiesofotherapproaches,itbringssomenewproblems,e.g.theorderofhowtoorganizeandarrangelanguageactivities.2.3GrammarTeachingandCommunicativeApproach2.3.1RelationsbetweenGrammarandCommunicationCombiningthetermscommunicativewithgrammarteachingmightseemtobeacontradictiontomanyteachers,buttheresearchstronglysupportsadmini

141、steringsometypeofgrammarinstructionwithinotherwisecommunicativelanguagelessons.“Languagecannotonlybeseeninitemsofgrammaticalitems,itcanalsobeseenintermsofitsfunctionincommunication.Onelanguageitemcanbeusedtoperformmorethanonefunctionincommunication.Soitisimportanttointroducegrammaticalstructureswithfunctions19nconsideringthest

142、udents’specialneedsandsituations.”(Zhang,2004:181)“Essentially,whatistaughtbythisapproachistheabilitytocomposecorrectsentences.”(Widdowson,1972:15)Besidescomposingthesentences,themostimportantforcommunicationisputtingsentencestogethercorrectly,whichtherecommendedapproachlacks.Here,thiskindof“ability”canberegardedasgrammarabilit

143、yundercommunicativeapproach,whichsurelycompromisesthesetwoseeminglycontradicteditems.“Itisaradicalmistaketosupposethataknowledgeofhowsentencesareputtouseincommunicationfollowsautomaticallyfromaknowledgeofhowsentencesarecomposedandwhatsignificationtheyhaveaslinguisticunits.Learnershavetobetaughtwhatvaluestheymayhaveaspredictions

144、,qualifications,reports,descriptions,andsoon.Thereisnosimpleequationbetweenlinguisticformsandcommunicativefunctions.Affirmativesentences,forinstance,arenotalwaysusedasstatements,andinterrogativesentencesarenotalwaysusedasquestions.Onelinguisticformcanfulfillavarietyofcommunicativefunctionsandonefunctioncanbefulfilledbyavarietyo

145、flinguisticforms.”(Widdowson,1972:17-18)“WhatIshouldliketosuggestisthatweshouldconsiderwaysofadaptingthepresentapproachtotheteachingofcommunicativevalue.Iwouldproposethatintheprocessoflimitation,grading,andpresentation,weshouldthinknotonlyItermsoflinguisticstructuresandsituationalsettings,butalsointermsofcommunicativeacts.”(Wid

146、dowson,1972:19)Paulston(1976)hassuggestedthreeclassesofdrillsfororalpracticeactivities:mechanicaldrills,whosepurposeistogetstudentsfamiliarwiththeformofnewpatternsandthefinalgoalistohelpthemmemorizethepattern;“meaningfuldrills”whichlaymoreemphasisonmeaningratherthanonform;“communicativedrills’,whicharecarriedoninacommunicatives

147、ituationinsteadofrealcommunication.“Thoughdrillsarehelpfulforforminggoodspeechhabits,practisinglanguagefeatures,consolidatingrulesandstructuresanddevelopinglanguageskills,theytendtocreateboredominclass,andstudentsoverdrilledmechanicallyoftenappeartolackflexibilityandbeuncertainofwhattheyshouldsayinarealcommunicationsituation.”(

148、Tang,1983:212-213)Teachersshouldengagestudentstocommunicatewithothersinclass,soastodeveloptheircommunicativecompetence.Widdowson(1978:3)thought“Inbrief,itinvolvesanunderstandingofthecommunicativevalueoflinguisticelementsincontextandthisisbasedonknowledgeofhowtheseelements20nmayserveasclueswhichcanbeinterpretedbyreferencetoshar

149、edconventionsofcommunication.”2.3.2TheApplicationofCommunicativeApproachinGrammarTeaching“Onthebasisoftheircommunicativevalueforthelearner,theteacherwilloftendrawadistinctionbetweenformsthatlearnersshouldmasterforproductiveuseandthosewhichtheyneedonlyrecognizeforcomprehensionpurpose.”(Littlewood,2000:77)Itsuggeststhatgrammatica

150、lruleshadbetterbetaughtwithvariousfunctionalcategories.Asforthefluency,itdependsontheauthenticlanguageenvironment.There’smorespontaneityinclassrooms,underwhichstudentscanaccomplishsomeactivitiesundertheguidance,butnotcontrolfromteachers.Inordertoachievethecommunicativegoals,manytechniquesshouldbeused,suchasfilms,videos,tapes,PP

151、Tetc.Savignon(2006:20)saidthat“LearnerswhoareaccustomedtobeingtaughtexclusivelyintheirmothertonguemayatfirstbeuncomfortableiftheteacherspeakstotheminEnglish,expectingthemnotonlytounderstand,but,perhaps,torespond.Whenthishappens,teachersneedtotakespecialcaretohelplearnersrealizethattheyarenotexpectedtounderstandeveryword,anymore

152、thantheyareexpectedtoexpressthemselvesnativelikeEnglish.Makinganefforttogetthegistandusingstrategiestointerpret,express,andnegotiatemeaningareimportanttothedevelopmentofcommunicativecompetence.”So,atfirst,it’snoteasyforChinesestudents,whoadapttogrammartranslation,toacceptthisnewapproach.“It’sbetterforthelearnertostudygrammarind

153、ividuallyandindependentlythanasapartoftheclassroomlesson.”(Ur,1996:78)Thoughtherewasnosupportforit,thewriterbelievesitcouldbeaperfectmodelforgrammarlearningandteaching.Obviously,theusageofsyllabusisonlyprovisionofteaching.Itcanneitherdecidelearners’languagelearning,norprovidetheirabilityoflanguageapplication.Teachingsyllabuscan

154、explainthiskindofabilityindetails,butnevergiveittolearnersdirectly.Infact,somecommongrammarpracticeinstructuralmethodcanberedesignedtomeetneedsofthecommunicativeapproach.Teacherscanputthegrammarexerciseintolanguageapplication,whichmakesstudentsexperiencethecommunicativevalueofgrammarinrealcontext.Thereareusuallythreekindsofgram

155、marpractice:mechanicalpractice,meaningfulpracticeandcommunicativepractice.(Zhang,2004:186-187)1.“Mechanicalpracticeshouldbecarriedouttohelpstudentsmemorizetheformofthestructure.Thereareseveralkindsofdrillswhicharefrequentlyusedinmechanicalpractice.”However,mechanicaldrillscannotbecorrectlyandtimelyusedintherealcommunicativecont

156、ext.21n2.“Meaningfulpracticeshouldbedoneassoonasstudentshavelearntstructure.Theteacherasksstudentstopaymoreattentiontomeaningratherthantoform.Atthisage,studentsshouldbeledtosummarizethefunctionaluseofstructure.”First,learnerscannotgainthecorrectbehaviorfromthe“make-up”drills.What’smore,interactioninameaningfulwaycandrawstudent

157、s’attentionandparticipationsoastohaveabetterunderstanding.3.“Communicativepracticecanbegiventoguidestudentstousethestructureforcommunication.”Teacherscanusevariousmethodsandequipments,suchaspictures,makingstoriesetc.It’sinevitableforcommunicativeapproachtocarryoutthecommunicativeprincipleduringgrammarteaching.It’scommunicativet

158、eachingactivitiesthatcanbeeasiertoinitiategrammarlearningthannon-communicativeones,inotherwords,moreeffective.Teachersgraduallyformtwotypesoftraditionalmethodsforgrammarteaching:theinductiveanddeductivemethod,whichweresummarizedbyBermanin1979.InductiveDeductiveExamplesPrinciplesExercisesExamplesPrinciplesExercisesTheinductiveme

159、thodfirstdisplaysmanyexamples,whichareraisedfromthecertaincontext,thendosomeexercisesbeforesummarizethegrammarprinciples.Meanwhile,thedeductivegoesfirsttoexplaintheprinciples,thenshowthemfromexamples.Atlast,finishexercises.Bothoftheabovemethodshavetheirownadvantagesanddisadvantages,whichmayinfluenceteachinginclass.Thedeductivem

160、ethodismoredirectandcansavetimeforteaching,whichneedsalotofworkforteachersbeforeandinclass,sostudentsaremorerelaxed.Butstudentsneitherhavechancestolearnbythemselvesunderthiscircumstance.Astheresult,studentsmayhavenegativeattitudetowardslearningbutonlywaitforteachersto“give”allthetime.Theinductivemethodsolvestheaboveproblemseasi

161、ly.Studentscanimprovethemselvesduringlearning,suchasconfidence,interests,initiativeetc.Astheresultofsomuchtimeforstudents,thismethodmaycausethelowefficiencyforclassandhighpressureforstudents.Aboveall,methodsandstrategythatteachersuseinteachingmayhaveimportant22ninfluencesonstudents’grammarlearning.2.3.3CommunicativeClassrooman

162、dtheTeacher’sRoleinitCommunicativeClassroomCook(1996:184)describedthecommunicativeclassroomastheclassroomaimsatreaching“agoalexpressedintermsofcommunication”whichmeans“theclassroomteachinghastobebasedoncommunication.”“Communicativeclassroomisakindofclassroominwhichtheteacherchangeshisrolefromacommandertoanorganizer,adirector,af

163、acilitator,andaparticipant.”(Scrivener1994:103)WhenAllenetallookedonlyatthecoreFrenchclasses,theyfoundthatthestudentsinmorecommunicativeclassesappearstoachievemuchthesameproficiencyasthoseinlesscommunicativeones”,andheputit,“acommunicativestylewithitsemphasisonspontaneousproductionbythelearnersisunlikelytogodownwellwithcultures

164、thatvaluesilenceandrespect”,whatthewriterherewouldliketoemphasizeisnotthe“quantity”,butthe“quality”ofknowledge.Brown(2001:425)summarizessomefeaturesforcommunicativeclassroomasfollows:“1.Classroomgoalsarefocusedonallofthecomponentsofcommunicativecompetenceandnotrestrictedtogrammaticalorlinguisticcompetence.2.Languagetechniquesar

165、edesignedtoengagelearnersinthepragmatic,authentic,functionaluseoflanguageformeaningfulpurposes.3.Fluencymayhavetotakeonmoreimportancethanaccuracyinordertokeeplearnersmeaningfullyengagedinlanguageuse.4.Inthecommunicativeclassroom,studentsultimatelyhavetousethelanguage,productivelyandreceptivelyinunrehearsedcontexts.”Thefollowing

166、istheadvantagesofcommunicativeclassroom.1)Itregardsteachingprocessaslanguagecommunicationandadoptscommunicativeactivityasanexercisetype,soteachersandstudentscanexchangetheirideas,feelings,andinformationfreelyinclassroom.2)Itusesreallanguagedataandvariouskindsofteachingmethodstoactivatetheexistinglanguage,especiallytheirinnerlan

167、guage.3)Itemphasizesondoingthingsthroughlanguage,whichcanhelpstudentslearnEnglishbyusingit.23nMeanwhile,thecommunicativeapproachasksteachersforhigherqualification.Teachers,asaknowledgeinitiatorbefore,shouldchangetheir“maincharacter”intoacostarinclass.Teacher’sRoleinCommunicativeClassroomAsweknow,communicativeclassroomisa“stude

168、ntcentered”classroom.Itdoesnotmeantheteacherisuseless;instead,itgivesteachersmuchhigherrequirementsforteachingsuccessfully.Incommunicativeclassroom,teachersalwaystakecommunicativeactivityastheheartoflanguagelesson,which,ofcourse,doesn’tmeanignoringlearning.Meanwhile,teachersshouldalsomakeitclearthatlearners’acquisitiondidn’tdep

169、endonteachers’explanation.However,they“getthegrammarinsomecasesreactionstothefrustrationofteachingforcommunication.”(Savignon,2006:19)Theteacherprovidestheknowledgeoftargetlanguagethroughvariousteachingmaterialsandgivesguidancetostudents’activitiesandclassroomstrategies.Students,followingteacher’shelp,cancreateconversationsingr

170、oups.“Asanorganizer,ingivinginstructionsforthepairwork,initiatingit,monitoringit,andorganizingfeedback;asaprompterwhilethestudentsareworkingtogether,andasahelperifstudentsneedhelpwithwordsandstructuresduringthepairwork”(Hedge2000:204),whichisanabsoluterejectionforthetraditionalteacher-centreclass.Theteachercanofferthekindsofsti

171、mulusandexperiencethatthelearningprocessesneed,buthasnodirectcontroloverthem.Thisisbecausenomatterwhattheteacheraffectstheprocess,learnerswilldevelopfollowingsomecertainsteps.Inotherwords,aslongaslearnershaveenoughexperiencefromtheenvironment,theycanlearnwithoutteachers,ofcourseforcommunicativepurpose.Itdoesn’tmeanthatteachersa

172、reuseless,becauseclassroomcanneverberealandnaturalenvironment.Onceanactivitystarts,theteachercouldn’tparticipateinit.Fromabroadhorizon,“facilitator”istheproperwordforteachers,whichhassomedetailedaspectsasfollows.1.“overseer”,whichmeanstomakesuretheentiretyoftheactivity.2.“manager”,whichmeanstoorganizethewholeclasspractically.3.

173、“instructor”,whichmeanstopresentnewknowledge,evaluatestudents’performancesetc.4.“consultant”,whichmeanstohelpthestudentsintrouble,orbalancelearnersindifferentlevels.Theaboverolesforteacherswilldogoodnotonlytostudents’communicativeabilitybutalsotheirrelationshipsinclassroom.Theycanalsohelpstudentsgetinformationfromlisteningandco

174、mmunication,encouragethemtospeakEnglishbravelyandfreelyinandoutofclassroom,andpromotetheinteractionamongthestudents.Moreover,theycanstimulatethestudents’24ninterestinlearning,whichchangestheirrolefrompassivetoactive,andtheirlearningprocessfromdulltopleasant.25nChapterThreeMethodology3.1ObjectivesIntheabovechapters,thewriterre

175、viewssomeconcernedtheoriesofgrammarteachingandcommunicativeapproach.Here,theauthorappliestheminhighschoolstudentsinJinanLichengHonglouHighSchooltosolveproblemsasfollows:1.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’Englishgrammarlevelmoreefficientlythanthegrammar-translationmethod?2.Couldthe

176、communicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolarouselearninginterestmoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel?3.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’listeningcomprehensionandcommunicativecompetencemoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel?3.2ParticipantsTwoparallelnaturalc

177、lasses(Class7andClass8)inGradeTwoinHonglouHighSchoolwiththenumberof78studentstookpartintheresearch,whohadalreadyreceivedfour-yearEnglishteachingbefore.39studentsinClass7,25ofthemwerefemale,and39studentsinClass8,24ofthemwerefemale.(SeeTable3.1)ClassNumberofstudentsExperimentalClass39ControlClass39Table3.1DescriptionofStudentsThe

178、authorhasbeentaughtthetwoclassesforoneyear.Therefore,thelevelofstudentshadnosignificantdifferencebasedontheirfirst-school-yearfinalexamination,whichwasalsoshowedfromthepretestresults.Class7waschosenastheexperimentalclassandClass8asthecontrolone.Theexperimentalclassreceivedthegrammarteachingundercommunicativeapproach,andthecontr

179、oloneunderthetraditionalapproach.Therewerealtogether5periods,40minuteseach,perweekinEnglishwiththesameteacher(theauthor).Duringsix-weekteaching,non-predicateverbandtheattributiveclausewerethemainteachingcontents.Allthestudentswereattheaverageageof17,mostofwhomwerefromvillagesandtownsofJinan.Asaresult,theirEnglishlevelhadnosigni

180、ficantdifference.26n3.3InstrumentsTheinstrumentsneededinthestudyincludetwoquestionnaires(oneforteachersandoneforstudents)(SeeAppendixAandB)andtwoexaminationpapers(pretestandpost-test)(SeeAppendixCandD).Thequestionnaireforteachers,whoseresultsarecollected(SeeAppendixE),aimstoknowabouttheirattitudetowardsgrammarteachingandmethod

181、singrammarclass.Theotherquestionnaireforstudentsistogathertheirbackgroundinformationabouttheirself-awarenessofEnglishlearning,interestsinlanguage,willingness,opinionsaboutgrammarandcommunicativestrategiesinEnglishgrammarlearning(SeeAppendixF).BothquestionnairesarewritteninChinesetomakesurethatstudentsondifferentlevelscanclearly

182、understandthemeaningofquestions.PretestisusedtoshowthatthereisnosignificantdifferencebetweenthetwoclassesinEnglishlevelbeforethisexperimentsothatthereliabilityofdatacanbeguaranteed.Thepost-testisusedtoanalyzethechangesbetweentwoclassesaftertheexperiment.Inordertoguaranteetherigorandaccuracy,thetwoclassesusethesametestpapers.Bot

183、hofthetestpapersmakeupofthreeparts:multiple-choices,structurechangingandtranslation.Thepretestpaperincludessomekindsofgrammaritemsthatallthestudentshavelearned,suchasarticles,tenses,adverbialclauses,vocabulary,andsituationaldialogues,whilethepost-testmainlyfocusesontheattributiveclauseandnon-predicateverb.3.4MaterialsThetwogram

184、maticalitemsintheexperimentarefromModule5oftheneweditionpublishedbythePeople’sEducationPublishingHouse.Othermaterials,suchasteachingplans,learning-guidepapersforstudents,areallstrictlyinaccordancewiththebook.What’smore,PPT,taperecorder,videoandaprojectorareneeded.3.5ProcedureBeforetheexperimentInordertoknowabouttheteachers’opin

185、ionsongrammarteachingandprepareforthesuitableteachingplansforstudents,twoquestionnairesweredistributedtoalltheEnglishteachersatschoolandstudentsinGradeTwoseparately.Thequestionnairesrequiredteachersandstudentstoshowtheirownopinionsclearly.Choicesandquestion-and-answerweremainly27nincluded.Theexperimentwascarriedoutinthefirstse

186、mesterof2011to2012academicyear,inweek7.(SeeTable3.2)WeekProceduresWeek7PretestWeek8-9AttributiveclauseWeek10-11Non-predicateverbWeek12Post-testTable3.2TimeallocationoftheexperimentStage1(Week7)FromOctober10,2011toOctober14,2011Thisstagemainlyfocusedonthepretestwhoseresultswereanalyzedtomakesurethatthetwoclasseswerealmostatthesa

187、mebasis.Pretestwasconductedwithin30minutesonMonday,thOctober10,2011,andthereweretwokindsofquestions:choicesandtranslation(SeeAppendixC).What’smore,thequestionnaires(SeeAppendixAandB)canreflectteachers’andstudents’opinionsongrammar,whichmostlyincludedmultiplechoices.Inthepretestpaper,grammaritems,includingarticles,vocabulary,phr

188、ases,tenses,modelverbs,adverbialclause,andsituationaldialoguesareincludedforchoices.Inthesecondpart,therewere6sentencesinseparatetwoparagraphsfortranslation,whichconsistedofChinesetoEnglish,andEnglishtoChineseaswell.Thefirstpartwasscoredbycomputer,whilethesecondpartbytheauthor,whichmeanedthesamestrictevaluationstandard.thstStag

189、e2(Week8to11)FromOctober17,2011toNovember11,2011Inthisstage,attributiveclauseandnon-predicateverbweretaught.Thereweretwospecialgrammarlessonseachweekforeachclassbesidesothercurriculumlessons.CommunicativeapproachwasusedintheExperimentalClass(EC),whilegrammar-translationmethodusedintheControlClass(CC).Here,thewriteronlyexplainst

190、hestepsfortheattributiveclause,andthedetailedguidepapersareintheAppendixH.StepsforECareasfollows:Step1:Lead-inShowstudentswhattheattributiveclauseisinChineseandinEnglishaswell.从前有座山,山里有座庙,庙里有个缸,缸里有个盆,盆里有个碗,碗里有个勺。T:“IfwewanttotellthisinterestingstorytoyourAmericanpen-friend,howcanwedoinonlyonesentence?”Learnersareencouragedtoexp

191、ressideasonthebasisoftheirownsentenceandgrammar28nstructures.Theaccuratetranslationisnotamusthere.Itisintendedforarousingstudents’interestandattention.IfwewanttotellthisstoryinEnglish,howcanwedoinonlyonesentence?Step2:Whatistheattributeclause?Explainfromtheirknowledgeabouttheattributeatmiddleschool,andaskstudentstohaveadiscuss

192、ionabouttheuseofit.ThengiveasummaryinfrontofclassinEnglishandChineseifneeded.e.g.aflowerÆIgaveaflowertomotheronMother’sDayabeautifulflowerÆIgaveabeautifulflowertomotheronmother’sDayaboyÆImadeanewfriendwithaboyinthenewclassatallboyÆImadeanewfriendwithatallboyinthenewclassT:“Observethesecondsentencewiththefirstsentenceineachgroup

193、.Telluswhichonecanmakeavividimpressiononyou?”…T:”What’sthefunctionofthewords‘beautiful’and‘tall’?Afterthesummaryfromstudents,theteachercantalkabouttheuseofattributeasfollows:Theattributeisusedtodescribesomethingvividly,exactlyanddifferentfromanotherone.However,ifyouwanttodescribethefollowingthingsusingattribute,whatwillyoudo?e.

194、g.Hesentmeaflower,andtheflowerisbeautiful.Iknowaboy,andheisverytall.Iwillputthemintothefollowingones:e.g.Thisisabeautifulflowerthathesentme.Iknowaboywhoisverytall.T:“Whatqualifiestheword‘flower’?Doesitgiveyoumorevividorconcreteinformationabouttheflower?Isitawordoraclause?Ifitisaclause,howisitformed?”Step3:Students’discussionabo

195、uttheformoftheattributiveclause.Here,thediscussionmainlyfocusesonthefeaturesandpartsoftheattributiveclause.Theteacherdividesstudentsinto6groups,6studentsin3groupsand7intherest3groups,andasksthemtofinishtheblank-fillingandchoicesontheguidepaper.Beforethat,givethemsomeotherexamplesoftheattributiveclause.29ne.g.1.Theattributivecl

196、auseisasentencethatqualifies(修饰限定)a______AnounBverbCpronounDadj.2.Whereistheattributiveclause?AbeforethenounBafterthenounCbeforetheverbDaftertheverb3.Findouttheconj.intheaboveexamples._____________________________________________Step4:SummingupCheckanswersoftheabovethree,andchoosesomesentencesfromtheintensivereadingpassageinthe

197、textbook.Helpstudentsfigureouttheattributiveclause,antecedent,andtherelationalword.Step5:HowtomaketheattributiveclauseRecognizingtheattributiveclauseisnotenoughforstudents,andalsoforthisgrammar,sotheteachercanshowsomeexamplesbyppt,andaskstudentstosumupthestepsformakingasentence.e.g.Ivisitedtheschool.Iknewthisschoolwell.Ivisited

198、theschoolthat/whichIknewwell.1.findoutthesamewordinthetwosentence.2.pickuptheclause3.takeoutthesamewordintheclause4.decidewhichconj.shouldbeused5.puttheconj.infrontoftheclauseAccordingtotheabovesteps,givestudentssomeotherexamplestofinish.Dothembytheirown,andthencheckanswerswiththeirgroupmembers.Step6:CommunicativepracticeInthis

199、part,teachercanmakeanintroductionofJinan,andaskthestudentstohaveacompetitiontofindoutalltheattributiveclauses.Nowlet’slookatashortparagraphthatincludessomeotherattributiveclauses,andfindoutallofthem.(writedownthissentenceontheblackboard)JinanisabeautifulcitylocatedinthenorthofChina.ItisthecapitalofShandongprovince30nwhichhasah

200、istoryof3000years.Itcoversanareaof3300squarekilometerswithapopulationof3500,000.Jinanhasmanytouristsceneries,themostfamousofwhichareQianfoMountain,DamingLakeandBaotuSprings.JinaniscalledtheSpringsCityandthewaterinBaotuSpringsburstsalltheyeararound,whichtastessweetandisfitforthetea.Afterfindingoutallattributiveclauses,asimilarco

201、ntextexercisehadbetterbeemployed.T:“Now,youknowhowtointroduceJinan,especiallyitslocation,history,populationandtouristspots.Pleaseintroduceyourhometowntoyourfriend.Theattributiveclausemustbeusedwherenecessarytomakekeyinformationaboutyourhometownmorevividandexact.”Step7:SomeflexibleexerciseInthispart,multiplechoicesarethemainform

202、forexercise,andaftergivinganswers,studentscanhaveadiscussionwithpartnerstosummarizesomespecialrulesfortheattributiveclause,andrememberthem.Communicationcannotbetheonlyaimforgrammarbecauseoftheexamforstudents.Astheresult,someotherrepresentativeexercisesareneeded,fromwhichstudentscanlearnmorerulesbytheirown.Ofcourse,exercisesmust

203、bedesignedtoenablestudentstouselanguageasdeterminedbynear-genuinecommunicativeandconceptualneeds.Theteachershouldcombinetheoralandwrittenexercisestogether.Step8:ReviewOnce,therewasaspoon(勺子)inabowl(碗)whichwasinabasin(盆)whichwasinavat(缸)whichwasinatemple(庙)whichwasonahill.StepsforCCareasfollows:Step1:Lead-inShowstudentswhattheat

204、tributiveclauseisinChineseandinEnglishaswell.从前有座山,山里有座庙,庙里有个缸,缸里有个盆,盆里有个碗,碗里有个勺。IfwewanttotellthisstoryinEnglish,howcanwedoinonlyonesentence?Step2:DefinitionfortheattributiveclauseTheteacherexplainstostudentswhattheattributiveclauseis,andthefunctionandtheformationaswell.定语从句:修饰名词的句子名词:先行词,因此定语从句在其后。关系词:分为关系代词及副词31n包含:that,whi

205、ch,who,whom,whose,where,andwhere.Step3:MemorizationMemorizationisthemostimportantskillforgrammar,whichmaytakestudentsalotoftime.Studentsareaskedtorememberalltherulesinclass,andtheteachershouldchecktheirresultimmediately.Step4:ExercisesforstudentsExercisesinthispartshouldincludedifferentkinds,suchassentence-making,combinationand

206、translation,withwhichstudentscanpractisetherulesfluently.ththStage3:(Week12)FromNovember14,2011toNovember18,2011Post-testshouldbegiveninthisstagetoobservethechangesbetweenECandCCaftertheexperiment.Thepost-testpaperwasdesignedallthesameasthepretestinquestionformsandthetimeinordertoguaranteetheresultswerereliable,comparableandobj

207、ective.Thechoiceswerecomposedbytwohalvesoftheattributiveclauseandnon--predicateverb,andalsothendtranslationpart.Thepost-testwasconductedonWednesday,November22011.32nChapterFourAnalysesandFindingsAftertheexperiment,therelevantdataiscollected.Next,itisinputintoSPSS19.0foranalysis,whoseresultscangiveanswerstothefollowingquestions

208、:1.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’Englishgrammarlevelmoreefficientlythanthegrammar-translationmethod?2.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolarouselearninginterestmoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel?3.Couldthecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteac

209、hinginhighschoolimprovethestudents’listeningcomprehensionandcommunicativecompetencemoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel?Duringthescoring,allthenamesofsubjectsarecoveredinordertohaveafairstandard.4.1Dataanalysis4.1.1QuestionnairesAnalysisThenumberofteachers’questionnairehandedoutis10,whichisthequantityoftheteachersinHongl

210、ouHighSchool,andallofthemarehandedin.Asforthestudents’,thenumberis448,andallofthemarealsohandedin.Theformerstatistics(seeAppendixE)showthatalmostalltheteachersthinkthatgrammaristheinevitableforEnglish,butonlyahalfofthemprefertohavetheindependentgrammarclass.Otherswouldliketoteachgrammarrulesthroughreadingcomprehensionofthetextb

211、ookorthepaperevaluation.Grammar-translationmethodistheonlyapproachthatteachersuseintheirdailyteaching,becausenearlyalltheteachershaven’tlearntaboutmethodsofgrammarteaching.Thedetailedanalysesareasfollows:1.8teacherscannotfinishthetextcontentswithinthegiventimesotheymaynothaveenoughtimeforcommunicationinEnglishinclass.2.Halfofth

212、eteacherspaymostattentiontogrammarwhile3ofthemtovocabularyand2tophrases,whichshowsthatteachersregardthegrammarasthemostimportantoneforlanguageteaching.3.8teachersthinkgrammarteachingabsolutelynecessarywhileonly2ofthemnot33nessential.Thus,mostteachersteachEnglishonthebasisofgrammar.4.Withintheabove8teachers,5ofthemnoticethatmos

213、tstudentshavenointerestintheboringgrammarlessonsandcannotfinishtheexercisecorrectly.Asfortherest3teachers,studentsintheirclassescanonlytrytoremembergrammarrulesanddosomeoftheexercisecorrectly.Therefore,grammarteachinginhighschoolneedsreformingtoarousestudents’interests.5.Allthe8teachersapplythetraditionalmodelinteachinggrammar,

214、thatisimplantinggrammarrulesinstudents’mind,askingstudentstonotedownandgivingsomechoicesforgrammaratlast.Theseinactivestepsmakestudentsabsentmindedingrammarlessons,nowonderstudentshategrammar.6.Therest2teachersinNo.3,whoshowlessattentiontogrammar,separatelyregardthevocabularyandreadingcomprehensiveabilityasthemostimportantfacto

215、rsforstudents’languageability.7.Asforthegroupworkoractivitiesinclass,only2teachersarewillingtousethemasthemainteachingmethods,and4ofthemonlyspendsometimeinsimplequestions,andothersemploynogroupworkforfearofnotenoughtime.ThiscanbeexplicatedfromNo.1forbeingshortoftime.8.8teachersknowlittleaboutteachingapproachesofgrammarandonly2o

216、fthemhavereadsomeconcerningbooks.Itisapitythatnoonehaseverdoneanyresearchongrammarteaching.Teachinglevelresultsinthestudents’learningeffectsandthelackofknowledgeforteachingmethodswillblockteachers’improvements.9.CollegeEntranceExaminationisregardedasthefinalaimofEnglishteachinginhighschoolfor5teachersoutof10,andother4thinkfluen

217、tcommunicationwithforeignersforstudentsistheirpurpose.Only1teacherwouldlikehisstudentstoreadEnglishbooksandnewspaper.Differentaimsfromtheteacherdeterminethedifferentteachingcontentsandmethodsinclasses.10.Mostteachersarewillingtoknowmoreaboutteachingapproachesforgrammar.Besides,theyareconfusedabouthowtoputthetheoreticalknowledge

218、intouse.Asforstudents,almostallofthemhavenochancetocommunicatewithforeigners,evenwiththeirclassmatesorteachers.Over80%ofstudentshategrammarrulesandthegrammar34nlessonaswell.Thedetailedanalysesareasfollows:1.30.1%studentsarefondofEnglishandalsodowellinthetest,and60.0%studentsjustregarditasacommonsubjectwithoutanyspecialinterest

219、s.Besides,9.8%studentsdislikeEnglishandcannothaveagoodresultfortest.2.VocabularyisregardedasthemostdifficultpartforlearningEnglish,andthere’re79.9%thinkso.Poorwritingskillsmake18.1%studentsnothaveconfidenceinit,andonly3studentscannotunderstandthedailydialoguewithforeignerswhichmakethemshy.Thus,Englishtostudentsisonlyasubjectbut

220、notalanguageforcommunication.3.Halfstudentshaveparticulargrammarlessonsandhalfofthemnot,whichmeanssometeacherswouldliketoteachgrammarpointsinsomeotherpractice.4.51.3%ofthefirsthalfstudentsreceiveexplanationofgrammarrulesinChineseandaregivensomerelativeexercise.TheothersmayreceivethegrammarrulesfromteachersbothinChineseandEnglis

221、hbeforesomeexamplesentences,andthentheteachersummarizetherulesforstudentsfollowedbysomeexercise.5.50.5%ofthesecondhalflearngrammarruleswhentheteachertranslatesomedifficultsentencesfromtexts.Theothersonlylearngrammarruleswhentheteachertalkaboutsomeimportantexercise.FromNo.4and5,theauthorthinksthatgrammarmaybeattachedtheimportanc

222、e,butteachershavenoeffectivewayinteaching.6.79.9%studentslookforwardtoagoodresultintheCollegeEntranceExamination,whichwillbethesatisfying“return”fortheireffortsinhighschool.12.1%studentsthinkgoodEnglishmeansreadingEnglishnewspaperandbooks,only8.0%studentsthinkfluentcommunicationwithforeignerscanprovetheirsuccess.CollegeEntrance

223、Examinationlimitsstudentsandteachersawarenessoflanguage.7.69.9%studentsconsiderthevocabularythebiggestbarrierforEnglishlearning,and9.8%ofthemthinkitisreadingcomprehensiveabilitythatresultslowmarksinthetest.Asforwritingskills,7.4%studentsvoteforit.However,12.7%studentspayattentiontocommunicativecompetence.Althoughmarksintestattr

224、actmostattention,someofthestudentsthinkhighlyofcommunicationinEnglishafterhigh35nschool.8.89.1%studentsattachtheimportancetogrammar,becauseitistheimportantpartinthetest.Meanwhile,6.3%studentsthinkbasicrulesareenoughand4.7%ofthemignoregrammar.Languagelearninginhighschoolseemsjustasasubjectthatcanbringhighmarksbutnotacommunicati

225、vetool.9.Aboutstudentsinfourclassesoftenpromotegroupwork,otherfoursometimes,andtwoclassesneverhave.10.49.3%studentswaitforchancesforrole-playandotheractivitieswhile25.9%ofthemareafraidtogoinfrontofclass.Only17.8%recommendthemselvestotakepartin,also,thiskindofactivitiesmeannothingto6.9%students.Moststudentsareunwillingtogoinfron

226、tofothersbecausethey’reafraidofmistakesinEnglish,11.75%liketowatchtheoriginalfilmsinEnglishandthesongsaswell,and18.8%ofthemwouldliketotalktoforeignerstopractise.Only6.3%studentswanttomakemoredialoguesinclass.ThisresultcanbeexplainedfromNo.10,thatis,mistakesindialoguesinfrontofclassmaybelaughedatbyclassmates.12.Allofthestudentsp

227、refermoreexplanationafterexerciseandforeignersaswellforimprovingtheirEnglish,whichmeansstudentsrealizetheimportanceofcommunicationinEnglishbesidesexamination.72.8%studentswouldliketocorporatewithclassmatesafterclassand64.1%ofthemtaketheactivitiesinclassnecessary.Speciallecturesandreportsgoto43.9%students.So,moststudentsarebored

228、withthepresentmodelofdailylessonsandfeelliketochangingforfreshness.13.MoststudentsleavethisblankemptyandIasksomeofthemthereason.Itispredictablethattheyhavenoideaaboutthemodelofgrammarlessonsandregarditasateachers’task.Students’passivereceivingbecomesthemainpatterninnowadaysclass,whichisregardedasusual.Teachersshouldhavedeepthin

229、kabouthowtoreturnthe“classroom”tostudentsthemselvesinordertoarousetheirinitiativeAftertheexperiment,althoughthewriterhasn’tanyinterviewaboutstudents,someofthemaremoreactiveinthinking,especiallyafterclass.Atleast,therearesomeofthemgoingtoask36nquestionsaboutgrammar.BecauseoftheirlimitedEnglishvocabularyofgrammarrules,theycanonl

230、yaskinChinese.Meanwhile,theatmosphereintheexperimentclassbecomesmoreimpassionedandvolunteersappearmoretotakepartinthecommunicativeactivities.Thus,communicativeapproachismoreeffectivethanthetraditionalgrammar-translationmethodatleastinimprovingstudents’interestsinlearningEnglishgrammar.4.1.2PretestAnalysisTheresultsofpretestarei

231、nAppendixGClassNXS.D.TdfSig.ExperimentalClass3994.0412.040.84380.42ControlClass3993.139.78Table4.1DataofTwoClassesinPretestFromtheabovetable,wecanseeT-valueis0.84,df=38,Sig=0.42>0.05.Itshowsthatthesetwoclassesdonothaveanysignificantdifference,whichhasthesameindicationfromthemeanandthestandarddeviation.4.1.3Post-testAnalysisA

232、ftertheexperiment,thepost-testisheld,anditsdetailedresultsareinAppendixG.Allthestatisticsarecollectedasfollows:XClassNS.D.TdfSig.ExperimentalClass3996.6711.671.22380.23ControlClass3994.3811.01Table4.2DataofTwoClassesinPost-testFromtheabovetable,wecanseeT-valueis1.22,df=38,Sig=0.23>0.05.Itshowsthatthesetwoclassesdonothavesign

233、ificantchangesaftertheexperiment.Thesamesituationisindicatedfromthemeanandthestandard.37nThefollowingistheresultofexperimentalclassTestNXS.D.TdfSig.Pretest3994.0412.04-3.31380.002Post-tests3996.6711.67Table4.3DatainPre-testandPost-testoftheExperimentalClassFromtheTable4.3,T=-3.31,df=38,Sig=0.002<0.01.Soithassignificantchang

234、esforexperimentalclass,whichmeansthecommunicativeapproachworksinthisprocedure.Thefollowingistheresultofcontrolclass:TestNXS.D.TdfSig.Pretest3993.139.78-1.31380.197Post-tests3994.3811.01Table4.3DatainPre-testandPost-testoftheExperimentalClassFromtheTable4.3,T=-1.31,df=38,Sig=0.197>0.05.Soitdoesn’thavesignificantchangesforcont

235、rolclass,whichmeansgrammar-translationmethoddoesn’thavelargeeffectonstudents’grammarlevel.4.1.4FindingsTheresultofasignificantlyhighscoreregisteredbythecommunicativeinstructionisevident.Fromtheprocedureandresultofexperiment,mostobviousimpressiononthewriterisfromtheclassandstudents.Answeringthethreequestionsabove,theauthorhasmaj

236、orfindingsasfollows:1.Thecommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovesstudents’Englishgrammarlevelmoreefficientlythanthegrammar-translationmethod.Notonlyseeingfromthehigherscores,theauthoralsonoticedthewaysofmasteringgrammarrulesforstudents.Comparedwiththeprevioussituation,themostcommonwayusedtocheckstudents’le

237、arningeffectwasmultiplechoices,andsomestudentsmayhesitatetochosethecorrectonebecausetheycanonly“recite”grammarrulesbutnot“use”.Now,moststudentscanusetheattributiveclausesandnon-predicateverbcorrectlyandnormalyintheirwriting,whichcanbehardlyseenbefore.Besides,communicativetasksencouragesstudentstopracticeandusethe38ngrammatical

238、structure,whichistheprocedureofoutputforthetargetlanguage.Asforchoices,afewstudents,whocangivetheexactanswer,don’tknowwhichrulestheyusebutonly“fluentcommunication”.Itistruethatinthecommunicativeactivitiesinclass,students’languagesensibilityhasbeendeveloped,whichcanalwaysleadthemtogivetherightanswer.2.Thecommunicativeapproachuse

239、dingrammarteachinginhighschoolarouseslearninginterestmoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel.Themostobviousphenomenonisthatthenumberofabsent-mindsdecreasesalot.Thecommunicativeactivitiesandtasksingroupmakeeveryonefocusonlearningfromeachother.Inthecommunicativeclassroom,studentsdon’thavemuchpressureondoingexercisesorwhethert

240、ogettherightanswers,sotheycanhaveamoreflexibleatmosphereinclass,whichmakestheclassveryrelaxed.What’smore,studentsandtheteachercangetalongwitheachotherharmoniouslybecauseofteacher’snotalwayscorrectingorordering.Hence,volunteersinclassbecomemoreandmoreenthusiastic,andeverystudentwouldliketoshowtheirdialogueswithpartners,evensomer

241、elativelypoor-levelones.Masteryofgrammarrulesattheendofclassseemsnatural.Communicativeactivitiesandtasksforstudentsmakethemengagedintheclass.Moststudentsfocusonthecommunicationwithpartnersandcompletingthesummarytask,whichcouldarousestudents’consciousnessofgrammar.Studentsneverdependonteacher’sexplanationandanalyses,butthemselve

242、sandtheirgroupmembers.Dickinson(1987)oncedefineditas“asituationinwhichthelearneristotallyresponsibleforallofthedecisions.”Duringthisprocedure,whattheteachershoulddoistorefininganddevelopingstudents’learningstrategiestomakesuretheygoinarightdirection.Thus,students’initiativetotakechargeoftheirownlearningisstronglyinspired.3.Thec

243、ommunicativeapproachusedingrammarteachinginhighschoolimprovesthestudents’listeningcomprehensionandcommunicativecompetencemoreeffectivelythanthetraditionalclassmodel.Inthecommunicativeclassroom,alargenumberofcommunicativeactivitiesandtasksareusedforgrammarteaching,whichaskstudentstoexchangetheiropinionsandhavediscussioninEnglish

244、.Duringthisprocedure,studentshavetolistenandexpress.Furthermore,theteacherarrangeanddistributetasksinEnglish,whichcansetcorrectexamplesforsomeimportantgrammarrules,asaresult,studentscanmodelafterintheirowncommunication.Therefore,communicativetaskcanbeseenasthetruelanguageenvironment,wherestudentshavetoexpressthemselvesintargetl

245、anguage.Freeman(2003:257)saidthat39n“sometimesacommunicativetaskitselfrequiresthatstudentsattendtorelevantfeaturesforthetargetlanguage,suchaswhenusingaparticulargrammaticalstructureisessentialtocompletingthetask.”Thestudents,especiallythosewhoareshyinlanguagelearning,feeleasywhileengageinthecommunicativeactivities.Whileintheco

246、ntrolclass,teacher’sroleofcommanderfortheclassalwaysmakesstudentsacceptgrammarknowledgereluctantlyandpassively.What’smore,doingexercisesinclass,suchaschoices,sentence-making,andpassagetranslation,istheloadforsomeofthem.“Remember!”or“Writeitdown”arethemostusualwordsfortheteacher,whichmeansnothingtosomestudentsafterlonganalysesfo

247、rgrammarrules,sothereisalmostnothingleftforstudentsafterclass.Becauseofnotaskoractivitiesforstudents,absentmindisthemostcommonphenomenoninclass,whichmakestheatmospheredullandineffective.Inordertoavoidteacher’sseriouscorrectionformistakes,moststudentswouldnotliketoanswerquestions,therefore,theteachercannotknowclearlywhetherstude

248、ntsmasterornot,whichleadstouselessrepetitionforknowledge.Allinall,comparedtothegrammar-translationmethod,communicativeapproachismoreeffectiveinstimulatingstudents’initiativeandtheirusingthetargetlanguage.Besides,theactiveatmosphereofclassmotivatesstudents’enthusiasmforlearning.Asforthecommunicativeactivities,theygivechancesfors

249、tudentstopracticegrammarrulesinarelativelyauthenticenvironmentthandoingexerciseonpaper,duringwhichstudentscanmastertheknowledgeindependentlyandactively.4.2ImplicationsTheexperimentcomparestheeffectsoftwomethodsonthelearninganduseoftheattributiveclauseandnon-predicateverb.Alltheresultsshowthesuperiorityofcommunicativeapproachove

250、rthegrammar-translationapproachonthelearningandapplicationofthetwogrammaritems.Therefore,thewritercansummarizesthatstudents’knowledgeandcommunicativecompetencecanbeimprovedbytheapplicationofcommunicativeapproach.4.2.1TheImportanceofGrammarTeachinginHighSchoolCorrectunderstandingofthegrammarteachingisthefirstimportantfactorforth

251、esecond40nlanguageteachinginhighschool.Withthedevelopmentofthecommunicativeapproach,someteachersthinklowofgrammarteaching.Underthepressureofexamination,mostteachersdon’thaveenoughtimetoimprovestudents’communicativecompetencewhichisthefinalaimoflanguagelearning.Grammarshouldbetheservantforstudentstolearnlanguage,butnotmaster.Wh

252、at’smore,communicativecompetencedoesn’texcludegrammarteachingandlearning.Astheresult,someteachers’opinionofsimplifyingorevenleavingoutgrammarisabsolutelywrong.Onthecontrary,oneofthemostimportantpartsforcommunicativecompetenceisgrammar.4.2.2TheimplicationofcommunicativeactivitiesinclassCommunicativeactivitiesarethemostimportantm

253、ethodforteachersincommunicativeclassroom,whichcan“relieve”theteacherfromtheheavyloadofteachingthegrammarrulesinaway,andcentrethestudentsasthehostforclass.Besides,itisagoodwayforteacherstodrawstudents’attentiononlearning.Incommunicativeclassroom,studentshavetocompletethetasksfromtheteacherwiththeirpartnersonebyone,whichmeanskeep

254、ingthembusyincommunicatingwithothers.JustasFreeman(2003:257)said“theaddedvalueofusingacommunicativetaskisthatstudentsareencouragedtousethetargetstructures,therebygenerating‘output’thatattractsfeedbackfromateacheroranotherstudent.”Teacherscanusevariousactivities,suchasproblem-solve,questionandanswer,discussionanddebate,role-play

255、,andgroupcompetition,allofwhichcreateanauthenticenvironmentforstudentstopracticetheircommunicativeskillsandthegrammarrulesaswell.4.2.2TheImplicationofRelativelyAuthenticEnvironmentforClassWiddowson(1978:2)statesthat“thelearningofalanguage,then,involvesacquiringtheabilitytocomposecorrectsentences.Thatisoneaspectofthematter.Butit

256、alsoinvolvesacquiringanunderstandingofwhichsentencesorpartsofsentencesareappropriateinaparticularcontext.”Theformerdependsonthegrammaticalrules,sothatteacherscangivesomeexampleswhichseldomrelatetocontext:Theseflowersdiedfromthelackofwater.Justleavethedooropen.Strongwindsweptupleavesintotheair.41nHecaughtsightoftherainbowyester

257、day.Studentsregardherasafriend.TeacherssettheseexamplestohelpstudentsunderstandthelanguagesystemofEnglish.“They’reinstancesofcorrectEnglishusage.Butofcoursewearenotcommonlycalleduponsimplytomanifestourknowledgeinthiswayinthenormalcircumstancesofdailylife.Wearegenerallyrequiredtouseourknowledgeoflanguagesysteminordertoachievesom

258、ekindofcommunicativepurpose.Wedonotsimplymanifesttheabstractsystemofthelanguage;weatthesametimerealizeitasmeaningfulcommunicativebehavior.”(Widdowson,1978:3)Theaboveexamplesmeannothingtostudentsindailycommunication.AlthoughChinesestudentsdon’thaveenoughchancetocommunicatewithforeigners,teachersshouldstillcreaterelativelyauthent

259、iclanguageenvironmentforthem.Discussionandgroupworksinclassforstudentsmaynotbesoauthenticaswithforeigners,butmorethantheabovesentencesgivenbytheteacheralone,underwhichstudentscanapplythegrammarrulesandmasterbythemselves.4.2.3GrammarTeachingPrinciplesinCommunicativeApproachAspreviouschaptersstated,grammarshouldbetheimportantpart

260、forcommunicativeapproach.Throughtheexperiment,thewriterconfirmstheconfidenceaboutit.Mitchell(2000:297)presentsausefulsetofresearch-basedgeneralprincipleswhichcanguidetheteachingofgrammarinsecondorforeignlanguageclassrooms.First,grammarteachingshouldbeplannedsystematic,andcarriedoutinastrategicway.Second,teachersshouldsparenoeff

261、orttoofferlearnersavarietyofopportunitiesatdifferentstagestofostertheirgrammarunderstanding.Third,grammarteachingshouldbelittlebylittleandasoftenaspossible.Fourth,problem-solvinggrammaractivitiesmaybeneededtodevelopstudents’activethinkingandcorporationwithpartners.Fifth,teachers’immediatefeedbackandpraisecanpromotestudents’acti

262、venessforgrammarlearning.Atlast,grammarteachingneedstobesupportedbymeaning-orientedactivitiesandtasks,whichgiveimmediatechancesforpractice.AsBrown(1980)said1.Classroomshouldpayattentiontocommunicativecompetenceratherthangrammaticalrules.2.Functionshouldberegardedastheframework.42n3.Mistakesingrammarareallowedinclassroombecause

263、communicationmeans“meaningtransmission”.4.Studentsshouldreachalevelwheretheycan“usethelanguageproductivelyandreceptivelyinunrehearsedcontexts”.Theseprinciplesmayseemastheusefulguidanceforgrammarteachingunderthecommunicativeapproach.4.2.4AtypicalTeachingModelintheWriter’sClassAftertheexperiment,theauthorhasreorganizedtheclassand

264、teachingplansforteachinggrammar.Anykindofteachingactivitiesmustberealizedwithcertainorganization.Theappearanceofthecommunicativeapproachchallengesthetraditionalteachingmodels.Languageteachinginschoolwasdominatedbythe“neat”classorders,whichwerejustlikethericeshootinfields.Apparently,thiskindofclassroomconfigurationoforganization

265、hadadvantages:easytosuperviseforteachers,hardtobeabsentmindedforstudentsandsynchronoustocarryontheteachingactivities.However,itsdisadvantagesappearedasthecommunicativeapproachdeveloped.Firstofall,studentscannothaveenoughchancestopractisespeaking,becausetheinformationonlygoesfromeachertostudents,whichmeansstudentscanonly“answerq

266、uestions”.Second,thesinglerhythmofteachingcannotbalanceallthestudentsindifferentabilities.Third,thecommunicativeclassasksforvariouscircumstances,suchasrole-playandgames,soastoenablestudentstoenhancethelanguageapplication.However,thetraditionalteachingorganizationisincapacity.AsahighschoolEnglishteacher,thewriterwouldlikestudent

267、stodiscusssomequestionsingroupsinEnglish.Atfirst,studentsdon’tknowhowtoexpresstheirownopinionsinsimplewords,andasthegrammarknowledgedevelops,theycanusesomeofthemtotalk.Teachershelptocorrectmistakesinthespeeches.Finally,studentscangiveafluenttalkinfrontofclassinalmostStandardEnglishaboutsomeeasygrammarpoints.Inthemeantime,thecom

268、municativeapproachregardstheclassasaminiaturegroup,whichcannotonlygivestudentsexperienceofroleplaying,butenlargetheirchancestouselanguage.Astheresult,traditionalteachingpatternscannotsatisfyandhavetobebroken.Professor.Wu(1997)summarizessomeproblemsasfollows:First,wefacetheproblemofreorganizingtheseatingarrangements.Studentsaret

269、hecentreofclass,whocouldn’thaveface-to-facetalkintheoldpattern,sothecommunicativeclassroomchangesaccordingly.43nSecond,asmentionedabove,“largeclass”isanotherproblem.InChina,thecommonclasshasover50students,even70.It’sdifficulttocarryoutteachinginit.Astheresult,teachercanchooseafewstudentstobeassistants,whoarebetterthanothersinl

270、earning,andgivethem“theinductiontraining”.Teachersshouldasktheirfeedbacksforeachclass.Third,theproblemofmemberscollocationishardtosolve.Asmanyfactorsareincludedforpairworkorgroupwork,students’learningability,theirseparatecharacteristicsandmanagementsshouldbetakenintoconsideration.Theteachingneedsanddemandcandecidewhetherthegrou

271、psarepermanentortemporary.Atlast,classmanagementisalsoveryimportant.Thecommunicativeclasssometimesmayslowallthestudentstowalkaroundorspeakaloud,whichresultinnotfinishingthetaskwithinthetimeortalkinginthemothertongue.Tosolvetheseproblems,teachershavetoinspect,directandsupervisearoundtheclassinadditiontochoosingtheassistants.Besi

272、des,teacher’sordermustbesuccincttothepointandeasytounderstand.Theauthorherewouldliketointroducetheformsatherownschool.Thereareabout39studentsinaclass,andtheyaredividedinto6groups.ThefoundationofdividingistheirbasisandabilitiesofEnglish.Theirseatsarefacetofaceineachgroup,whichissuitabletocommunicatewitheachother,andalmosteverygr

273、ouphasablackboardonthewall.Theseareshowsinthefollowingpicture:platformFigure4.1Thediagramofstudents’seatsinthewriter’sclassStudentAisthegroupleaderwhoisthebestinEnglish,andheisinchargeofapportioningteacher’stasksandexplainingorderstothosewhocannotunderstand.Whenteacher’stasksareassigned,thegroupleaderhastherighttogivetodifferen

274、tmembers,then,theycancooperatetofinishteacher’stask.Aftersolvingtheseatsproblem,nextistochangetheoldteachinghabitsforteachers.TextsarethemaincontentforEnglishteachinginhighschool,inwhichthere’rewords,phrases,drillsandgrammar.Astheresult,students’communicativecompetencedrawslittleattention.Here,itcallsforteachers’highquality.Fir

275、st,Englishmustbemostlyusedinclassformation,whichcan44ncreateacomparativelyrealcircumstance.Highschoolstudentshavealreadyhadvocabulary,somostofinstructionsfromteacherscanmakesense.Especiallywhenexplainsomeknowledge,teacherscanusesynonymsorexamplesindailylife,whichcanleadstudentstothinkandunderstanddirectlyinEnglish.What’smore,c

276、ommunicationactivityisthemajorpartinclass,whosefeatureistoreducetheinformationgap,i.e.tofillinthegapthroughcommunication.Asforthemodelprocedureinteachingandlearning,thefollowingchartcanillustrateit.CommunicativeLearnersrealizethetargetTaskpresentationGrammarisinterestingorpracticalBasicdefinition/Structure/functioninacommunicat

277、ivecontextLearnersrealize,compareandreflectontheformoftargetgrammarincommunicativecontextBasicrulesinacommunicativecontextLearnersagainfindouttheCommunicativestructureandcopythestructurepracticetofinishacommunicativetask.LearnerstrytofinishthetaskCommunicativepresentedatthebeginningoftheTasksolutionclassFigure4.2Thechartofthewr

278、iter’steachingprocess45nConclusionTheaimofthispaperishowtoteachgrammarunderthecommunicativeapproach,whichistheproblemformostEnglishteachersinhighschool.Thisproblemmayincludesomeotheraspects,suchaswhetherornottoteachergrammar,teacher’sroleinthecommunicativeclassroometc.Aftertheexperimentinthispaper,thewriterconcludesthatthecomm

279、unicativeapproachismoreeffectivethanthegrammar-translationapproachatleastinarousingstudents’interestinlearningEnglishandbeneficialfortheimprovementoftheircommunicativecompetenceandcomprehensiveskills.Althoughthemainpointofviewbelievesaverytimeinclassshouldbeusedforgrammarteaching,itdoesn’tmeanthesimplereturntothetraditionalrout

280、ineofgrammarrules.Nowadaysfocusturnstostudents’“discovery”ofgrammarformteachers’“donation”.Inpossiblecases,studentscan“feel”thenewlanguageundertheunderstandablecircumstance,whichcanmakethemclearlyknowthislanguagefunctionandsemanticmeaning,andafterthat,leadthemtopayattentiontogrammarpatternsforexpression.Studentsarethemaincharac

281、tersduringthepublicdiscussionaboutgrammar,whotrytodiscovernewlanguagephenomenonasmanyaspossiblewithintheirabilitiesunderteacher’shelp.Inthismethod,students’comprehensionoflanguagehassurpassedtheirortheirteacher’sabilityofdescribinglanguageinwords.Iftheteacherleadintonewlanguagewiththe“universal”(broken,infact)rules,studentsmaya

282、cquireaninformationthatthereisnomoretolearnaboutit,andwhattheyonlyshoulddoistopractice.Onthecontrary,ifstudentscandiscussaboutwhattheyhave“grasped”afterdiscovery,theycangainnewknowledgeinternalization,evenmasterskillfully.TheCommunicativeApproachoriginallyintendstotreatlanguageasacommunicativesystem,whichistheexactextensionofth

283、eretrospectiveapproachforlearninggrammar.Pairworkgivesstudentssomecontrolandchoicestosomeextend,whichshouldcomewithrealindependenceforchoosing.Meanwhile,roleplay,especiallysomesimpleones,cannotsatisfy.Astheresult,teachersshouldsearchforotherwaysforpairwork.Howtopromoteeachotherbycollectionactivitiesisthefirsttobeconsidered.They

284、canserveasaferenvironmentforeachothersoastoattempttoexpressthemselvesbeforepublictalking,whichleadstoamaturethoughtandconfidenceforcommunication.Besides,theycancomplementknowledgeandskills46nmutually,whichmakesthelanguageactivitiesmoresuccessful.Someotherapplicationsofpairworkcanenlightenteacherseffectively;forexample,itcanbes

285、eemedaspreparationbeforestudentstakepartinthereallanguageactivities.Intheexperiment,studentsseemasthecentreofthecommunicativeclassroom,whichisverydifferentfromthetraditionalclassroom.Studentshavechancestocommunicatewiththeirpartnersaboutquestionsfromtheteacher,duringwhichtheycanpracticegrammaritemsimmediatelyandthecommunication

286、inEnglishaswell.Differentfromthetraditionalteacher-centeredclass,studentshaverightstoask,report,show,andsummarizeknowledgebythemselves.Thisseemslightentheloadoftheteacherinclass,butthepreparationandpredictionbeforeclassbecomemorecomplexandimportant.Guidancefromtheteacherisregardedastheframeworkandcluesfortheclass,whichmakesuret

287、hatstudentscanclearlyknowwhatandhowtheyhavetolearn,andthatalltheconcernedknowledgecanbetaughtaccordingtothesyllabus.Astheresult,itrequirestheteachertoimprovetheirownqualityofusingEnglishinclass.Surelythetraditionalgrammar-translationmethodcannotbeabandonedcompletelybecauseofthenaturalcircumstancesofstudentsinChina.However,teach

288、erscannotignorethefinalaimoflanguage:communication.HowtoapplythecommunicativeapproachforteachinggrammarinChinaisunsolved,andthisthesiscanjustprovideanattemptandexperiment.Someshortcomingsandlimitationscanalsobefoundinit.Forexample,studentsinHonglouHighSchoolarealmostfromcountriesandmountainvillages,whichmayresultintheirpoorcomm

289、unicativecompetenceinmiddleschool,andthiscanbetheobstaclesduringcommunicativeactivities.Second,studentsfromthesetwoclassesmajorinarts,mostofwhomaregirls,whomaydobetterthanboysinlanguagelearning.Third,thetimeofexperimentisonlysixweeks,whichissolimitedforastudyofitsnature,andthenumberofgrammaritemsaswell.Manydifficultiesforcarryi

290、ngoutthecommunicativeapproachhappen,sofurtherresearchandinvestigationareneeded.Withtheapplicationofthecommunicativeapproach,teacherswillbecomemoreandmoreskillfulandopen-mindedinclassroomteaching,meanwhile,afteralong-termadaptationforstudents,theymaybenefitalotfromthisapproach.Duringthisprocedure,someproblemsmaybesolvedbycontinu

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304、研究出版社辛斌:2003.《当代语用学理论与分析》苏州大学出版社张庆宗:2004.《英语教学法》湖南人民出版社张正东黄泰铨:2002.《英语教学法双语教程》科学出版社51nAppendixAppendixATheQuestionnaireaboutEnglishGrammarTeachinginSeniorHighSchool(forteachers)尊敬的老师:您好!为了详尽地了解目前高中英语语法教学现状,以进一步开展并完善课堂语法教学方法,我们为老师设计了这份调查问卷,希望得到您的帮助。此份调查问卷与学生问卷结合使用,您的如实回答将作为我们评估的重要参考。谢谢您的合作!从教时间:_________教授年级:_________学生人数:_____

305、____1.对于大纲要求的课本知识及容量,您能在规定时间内完成吗?A能B不能2.以下教学内容,您认为最重视的是:A单词B短语C语法D课文3.您对语法教学的看法:A十分重要(进入第4题)B可有可无(进入第6题)4.在教授语法的过程中,您观察到学生的情况是:A听课认真,很有兴趣,能够很好地完成习题B能够坚持听讲,努力记住规则,完成习题一般C感觉枯燥,不感兴趣,习题完成较差5.您在语法教学中采用的主要方法是:A教师讲解,学生记录,配套习题B习题检测,教师纠错,学生记录C学生交流,教师总结,配套习题6.您认为影响学生英语能力最重要的因素是什么?A单词量B阅读能力C写作能力D交际能力7.在您的课堂上是否经常开展学生的小组活动?A占去课堂的大部分时间,教师仅作点

306、播B只针对较为简单的问题进行,其他的由教师代劳C太耽误时间,教师讲解地更细致8.您对语法教学方法了解多少?A完全不了解B看过相关书籍C做过深入研究9.您认为高中英语教学最终应该达成何种效果?A学生能与外国人进行良好地沟通与交流B学生能读懂相关的英语书籍及报刊C学生能在高考中取得满意成绩10.您对培养学生的英语交际能力有何看法?A课程内容都学不完,根本顾不上B没有语言环境,但课堂上的教学用语尽量使用英语C非常重要,会开设单独的听说课程52n除了以上内容,您对高中英语语法教学及其改进还有其他看法吗?53nAppendixBTheQuestionnaireaboutEnglishGrammarTeachinginSeniorHighSchool(for

307、teachers)亲爱的同学:你好!为了详尽地了解目前高中英语语法学习现状,以进一步开展并完善课堂语法教学方法,我们为同学们设计了这份调查问卷,希望得到你的帮助。此份调查问卷与教师问卷结合使用,大家的如实回答将作为我们评估的重要参考。谢谢同学们的合作!学习英语的时间:_________年级:_________性别:_________1.对于你自己的英语学习情况作何评价?A非常喜欢,学得很有乐趣,成绩也不错B一般,就是众多课程中的一门,成绩中等C不喜欢也学不会,成绩很差2.你认为英语学习最大的困难在于什么?A单词背不过,导致文章看不懂B短语用法记不住,写作文出错很多C听得太少,根本无法理解日常对话3.平时的英语课堂上,有没有单独的语法课?A有(进入第4

308、题)B没有(进入第5题)4.在教授语法的过程中,一般采用什么样的方法?A汉语授课,先讲规则,然后习题练习B英汉双语,先呈现例句,然后总结规则,最后做题C英语授课,先呈现例句,由学生自行总结,最后做题5.老师会在哪种情况下提到语法规则?A讲解课文时,针对长难句进行翻译B习题讲评时,针对正答率较低的题目C写作练习,针对出错较为集中的句子6.你认为高中毕业后,自己的英语水平应该达成何种效果?A能与外国人进行良好地沟通与交流B能读懂相关的英语书籍及报刊C能在高考中取得满意成绩7.你认为影响自己英语能力最重要的因素是什么?A单词量B阅读能力C写作能力D交际能力8.你对语法的观点是什么?A完全没必要单独学习,在平时的阅读中多注意就可以B不需要花费太多时间,知道最

309、基础的就行C还是应该重视,毕竟考试中经常出现9.课堂上是否经常开展学生的小组活动?A经常开展,占去课堂的大部分时间,教师仅作点播B有时开展,只针对较为简单的问题进行,其他的由教师代劳C从不开展,教师讲解,学生记录10.平时上课如果老师进行分角色对话或演出,你会积极举手参加吗?A.积极自荐54nB.被动等待C.千万别让我上台D.无所谓11.你认为有效提高英语交际能力的方式是什么?A.看英语原声电影或者听英文歌曲并学唱B.平时上课加大对话练习C.找机会与外国友人进行交流12.你觉得语法的学习最好以何种方式进行?(可多选)A.专门的讲座或报告B.课上分组活动讨论C.做大量习题后,由教师讲解D.外聘专家或外教E.课下分组按照任务进行搜集,课上展示成果13.

310、对于今后的语法课程,你有什么看法?你所期待的语法课是什么样的?_____________________________________________________________55nAppendixCPretestPaperPartOneChoices1.Themanagerwasworriedaboutthepressconferencehisassistant_____inhisplacebut,luckily,everythingwasgoingonsmoothly.A.gaveB.givesC.wasgivingD.hadgiven2.Don’tthinkhehasfoundajobyetbecauseIsawhimathomeju

311、styesterday.—______!A.NoproblemB.MaybeC.ExactlyD.Goodidea3.Onthenextbirthday,Ann___________marriedfortwentyyears.A.isB.hasbeenC.willbeD.willhavebeen4.Jim,I’m_______mypresentjob.Iwanttolookforanotherone.A.fondofB.busywithC.tiredofD.pleasedwith5.Wehurriedtoworkinthemorningandfoundthatsomebody_____intotheofficeduringthenight.A.bro

312、keB.hadbrokenC.hasbrokenD.wasbreaking6.Mike______theskateshoesassoonashesawthemintheshopwindow,andheboughtthematonce.A.gottiredofB.wasgoodatC.fellinlovewithD.caughtsightof7.Pleasedon’t______sugartoMr.Wang’scoffee.Heprefersitwithonlymilk.A.mixupB.addC.mixD.addup8.Thelittlegirl______toherselfaftertendaysinacoma(昏迷)thankstohermoth

313、er’scarefulattention.A.recoveredB.wokeC.cameD.knew9.He______alotofhardshipbeforehesucceeded.A.sufferedB.ranC.madeD.failed10.Shewassurprisedtofindthefridgeempty;thechild_____everything!A.hadbeeneatingB.hadeatenC.haveeatenD.havebeeneating11.I______theChineseCommunistYouthLeaguewhenIwas13yearsoldinjuniorschool.A.tookpartinB.joined

314、inC.enteredD.Joined12.Berthasbeen______footballsincetheageofaboutfive,ashisfatherisafootball56nplayer.A.interestedinB.upsetaboutC.concernedforD.afraidof13.First______thearticleoncequicklytogetthegeneralideaofit;thenIwillaskyouafewquestions.A.writedownB.lookatC.hearofD.gothrough14.Thechildaskedhismother______goouttoplaytennis.A

315、.thathecouldB.ifhecouldC.ifcouldheD.thatcouldhe15.Experimentsofthiskind___inboththeU.S.andEuropewellbeforetheSecondWorldWar.A.haveconductedB.havebeenconductedC.hadconductedD.hadbeenconducted16.Shesaidshe______thatstrangeanimaltwice.A.seesB.sawC.hasseenD.hadseen17.Canyoutellme_____therailwaystation?A.howIcangettoB.howcanIgettoC.

316、whereIcangettoD.wherecanIgetto15.Thegeographyteachertoldhisstudentsthattheearth_______aroundthesun.A.isgoingB.wentC.goD.goes16.—Wouldyouliketojoinmeforaquicklunchbeforeclass?—______,butIpromisedNancytogooutwithher.A.I’dliketoB.IlikeitC.Idon’tD.Iwill17.Mr.Smith,___ofthe___speech,startedtoreadanovel.A.tired;boringB.tiring;boredC.

317、tired;boredD.tiring;boring18.Hewantsto_____allofhistime_____films.A.devotes;writeB.devoted;towriteC.devoting;towritingD.devote;tomaking19.Whatisthe_____languageinIndia?A.officeB.officialC.officiallyofficer20.AfterthewartheJapaneseeconomylayin_______.A.ruinB.ruinsC.damageD.destroy21.Thenewcomerwenttothelibrarytheotherdayandscrat

318、chedfor______hecouldfindaboutMarkTwain.A.whereverB.howeverC.whateverD.whichever22.Alargenumberofpeople____,andhowcanthelocalgovernmentignoretheproblem?A.areoutofworkB.areinworkC.isoutofworkD.isinwork57n23.Wecan’tgiveup________weshouldfail10times.A.evenifB.sinceC.whetherD.until24.—Oh,yousoundedjustlikeanative.—______,Istillhave

319、troubleexpressingmyself.A.Well,notquiteB.Idon’tcareC.Yes,you’rerightD.I’mgladyoulikeit25.Itissonicetohearfromher.______,welastmetmorethanthirtyyearsago.A.What’smoreB.ThatistosayC.InotherwordsD.Believeitornot26.Therolehe________inrunningtheschoolisveryimportant.A.playedB.didC.madeD.showed27.Westudyseveralsubjects,_______Chinese,

320、maths,Englishandsoon.A.forexampleB.suchasC.suchlikeD.inexample28.Willyou_____playingbasketball?A.joinusinB.jointoC.joinustoD.tojoinus29.I_____whenIwasayounggirl.A.keptadiaryB.wroteadiaryC.madediariesD.keptdiaries30.Hewas____poorestmanhereyearsago,butnowheis____richman.A.a;theB.不填;theC.the;aD.不填;a31.Itisnotaseriousillness.Iguess

321、shewill______soon.A.removeB.recoverC.replaceD.reduce32.Wecan’tgiveup________weshouldfail10times.A.evenifB.sinceC.whetherD.until33.Themoneycollectedshouldbemadegooduse________thepeopleinSouthAsia.A.ofhelpingB.tohelpC.tohelpingD.oftohelp34.Thesceneryinmyhometownisbeautifulbeyond________.A.communicationB.situationC.organizationD.e

322、xpression35.ThespeakerspokesofastthatIcouldn’t_____whathetalkedaboutatthemeeting.A.setasideB.setdownC.setoutD.copyPartTwoTranslationThecastleofthatdynastywasdesignedinafancystyle.Onepalacewasdecoratedwithcarefullyselectedvaluableandrarejewelsandithadabeautifulentrance.Toouramazement,itsurvivedagreatexplosiononce._______________

323、_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________学校给我们许多种课外书供选择,这就出现了一个问题:即使很多同学倾向于订阅娱58n乐杂志,仍有一些同学反对这一观点。我们一直讨论该选哪种,最终达成了一致。_____________________________________________________________________

324、_______________________________________________________________59nAppendixDPost-testPartOneFillintheblanksandchosethecorrectanswers1.Theday_____Ifirstwenttohighschoolwasthemostexcitingofmylife.2.I"mgoingtovisittheschool_____mymothertaughtphysicstenyearsago.3.Thereason____wehaven"tseenherthesedaysisthatsheisinhospital

325、.4.Haveyouaskedherforthereason_____mayexplainforherabsence?5.Thefilmbroughtthehoursbacktome_____Iwastakengoodcareofinthefarawayvillage?6.Thereweredirtymarksonhertrousers_____shehadwipedherhands.A.whereB.whichC.whenD.that7.Doyoustillrememberthefarm_____wevisitedthreemonthsago?A.whereB.whenC.thatD.what8.Thevillagehasdevelopedalot

326、_____welearnedfarmingtwoyearsago.A.whenB.whichC.thatD.where9.IwassoabsorbedinatalkthatIroadpastthestation___Ishouldhavegotoff.A.thatB.whichC.whereD.atthat10.Iwillneverforgettheday_____IspentwithmanyfriendsinBeijing.A.whichB.whenC.whereD.不填11._________weallknow,airisagas.A.asB.whichC.thatD.what12.YesterdayImetmyEnglishteacher___

327、___seemedtobeverybusy.A.whomB.whoC.thatD.she13.Thedaywillcome_________thepeopleallovertheworldwillwinliberation.A.whereB.whenC.thatD.how14.Pleasedoitinthesameway______________.A.whichIdidB.asIdidC.likeIdidD.whatIdid15.Myglasses,___________Iwaslikeablindman,felltotheground.A.withoutitB.withoutthatC.withoutwhichD.withoutthem60n1

328、6.Hetoldusaboutthethingsandpersons___________hadinterestedhimmostwhenhestayedinShanghai.A.WhatB.WhichC.ThatD.Who17.Nextmonth,___________you"llspendinyourhometown,iscoming.A.WhereB.WhenC.ThatD.Which18._______________(fail)toreachthemonthephone,wesentanemailinstead.19.Thenewmuseum___________(decorate)atpresentistobeopenedtot

329、hepublicnextmonthasplanned.20.Theplay___________(hold)nextmonthaimsmainlytoreflectthelocalculture21.Thetrees___________(blowdown)inthestormhavebeenmovedofftheroad22.Manypeopletakephotosoftheflowers_________(smell)sweet23.Ican’tstand______withJaneinthesameoffice.Shejustrefuses______talkingwhilesheworks.A.working;stoppingB.towork

330、;stoppingC.working;tostopD.towork;tostop24.I’veworkedwithchildrenbefore,soIknowwhat_____inmynewjob.A.expectB.toexpectC.tobeexpectingD.expects25.Ihearthey’vepronouncedTom,buthedidn’tmention______whenwetalkedonthephone.A.topromoteB.havingbeenpromotedC.havingpromotedD.tobepromoted26.Lyinginbedalldaymeans___A.wastingB.tohavewastedC

331、.towastingD.towaste27.Myadvisorencouraged_____asummercoursetoimprovemywritingskill.A.formetakingB.metakingC.formetotakeD.metotake28.TolearnEnglishwell,weshouldfindopportunitiestohearEnglish____asmuchaswecan.A.speakB.speakingC.spokenD.tospeak29.Thedirectorhadherassistant______somehotdogsforthemeeting.A.pickedB.picksupC.pickupD.p

332、ickingup30.Ihavehadmybike______,andI’mgoingtohavesomebody______myradiotomorrow.A.repair;torepairB.repairing;toberepaired61nC.repaired;repairD.torepair;repairing31.Ifthereisalotofwork____,I’mhappytojustkeeponuntilitisfinished.A.todoB.tobedoingC.doneD.doing32.Thebeginningofclass,thenoiseofdesks_____couldbeheardoutsidetheclassroo

333、m.A.openedandclosedB.tobeopenedandclosedC.beingopenedandclosedD.toopenandclose33.Thetress_____inthestormhavebeenmovedofftheroad.A.beingblowndownB.blowndownC.blowingdownD.toblowdown34.Peopledrink____water,butnobodydrinks_____water.A.boiling;boilingB.boiling;boiledC.boiled;boilingD.boiled;boiled35.___________moreattention,thetree

334、scouldhavegrownbetter.A.GivenB.TogiveC.GivingD.HavinggivenPartTwoTranslationAtonepointalonganopenroad,whereIcametoacrossingwithatrafficlight,Iwasaloneontheroadbynow,butasIdrovenearthelight,whichturnedred,Imadeastop.Ilookedleft,right,andbehindme.Nothing,notacar,nosuggestionofacarlamps,butthereIsat,waitingforthelighttochange,theo

335、nlyhumanbeingforatleastamileinanydirection.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________为了学好英语,首先,

336、我们应该有一定能成功的信心。如果我们足够自信,那么没有事情是不可能的。第二,我们需要一本由专家编写的英语语法教材和一本好用的字典。最后,也是最重要的,我们应该寻找一切可以跟英语老师或是外国人交流。只有不断地练习,我们才能学好英语。______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

337、______________________________________________________________62nAppendixEResultsfortheTeachers’Questionnaire问题ABCD1282325038240355800611007244882094151064063nAppendixFResultsfortheStudents’Questionnaire问题ABCDE113526944235881303226222041161080511211006365435807313443457821283999179180891080221116311133628843261219728744844864

338、nAppendixGResultsofPretestandPost-testExperimentalControlPretestPost-testPretestPost-testClassClass1109109111211021031082109103311311331131124101102410610551041175919969410269810071151117949981051098105106910711099394109599109598119710011102108129799129910813971001396941494951410510515949915949316991031610396177681179099181011

339、0718878119949919979820949920848821106104219082229597229610623879023901082493972410194259799259610126848926828527991032789902899992810210129929129859330114963084803159723197993210310132848033979733828534838234878835747635838436868636809337696237776938848238787839818539766965nAppendixHGuidePaperforStudents洪家楼高级中学英语导学案使用时间:2011.1

340、0.19主备人:李梦参与人员:李家云许历马春华序号:11学习目标:80%的学生掌握定语从句,60%的学生能够找出文中的定语从句,30%的学生能够用定语从句完成文章重点:1.理解定语从句的概念2.学会定语从句的用法难点:应用关系代词引导的定语从句Unit3TravelJournal备注:StepOneSomeimportantexplaination请认真阅读例定语:用来修饰、限定、说明名词或代词的品质与特征的,多为形容词。句,并回abeatifulflower答课上形容词beatiful作定语,修饰名词flower老师提出的问定语从句AttributiveClauses:作定语修饰主句的某个名词性成分题(即先行词),相当于形容词,由关系词引导,一般紧

341、跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。课文例句1.theChinesepartoftheriver(thatiscalledtheMekongRiverinothercountries.)2.Somepeople(wholiveinthemountainsoftheeasternUSA)speakwithanolderkindofEnglishdialect.3.Thisisthecar(whichmyunclebought).4.Doyouwantafriend(whomyoucouldtelleverythingto)?StepTwoHowtomakeanattributiveClauses1.Doyouknowtheman?ThemanspokeEngli

342、shjustnow.请将两句话合成一个2.Ihavereadthenewspaper.Thenewspapercarriesimportantnews.定语从句,独立3.Ishowedhimtheletter.Ireceivedaletterthismorning完成66n4.They’retalkingaboutthefilm.Ihaveseenthefilm.5.Marry’sbrotherworksinthefactory.Heisanengineer.StepThreeCheckwhether“that/which/who”canbetakenoff1.ThehousethatI’mgoingtobuyhasthreerooms.2.Jan

343、ehasborrowedthebookthatwaswrittenbyLaoshe3.TheeggswhichIboughtwerenotfresh.4.Thefriendwhocametosupperlastnightwasnothungry5.Idon’tlikethepeoplethatsmokealot.StepFourFinishthefollowingexercise1.IamreadingHarryPorterisaninterestingbook.2.Hefailedintheexammadehisparentsangry.3.Theearthisroundisknowntoall.4.ThisisthebookIhavebeenlo

344、okingfor.5.Themanyoumetjustnowismyoldfriend.6.Themaniswalkingonthestreetismyoldfriend.7.Yesterdayshesoldhercar___sheboughtamonthago.(2008浙江)A.whenB.whereC.whatD.which8.Somegreatpeoplesaidtheirmiddleschoolteachers______theywerefondofinfluencedtheirwholelives.(山东临沂质检)A.whichB.thatC.whatD.where9.Finallytheyarrivedataplace______sol

345、dsomesmallarticles(小物品,物件).(东北三校联5月)A.whereB.whichC.inwhichD.what10.Doctorsareconcernedthechildren_____toomuchtimeinfrontoftheTV.(2007威海质检)A.thosespendB.whospendC.tospendD.spend67n11.Forweeks,thestreethasn’tbeencleanedbythecleaner______isverydirty.(2006广东广州)A.whoB.whatC.thatD.this12.Thefilmstar______triedtomakeacomebackmadealo

346、tofeffort.(2006广东珠海调研)A.whereB.whenC.whoD.thisStepFiveCheckyourselfThoughIcan’tremembereverything____happenedduringthetimeinuniversity,Istillremembersomepeopleandthings_____wererelatedtoMissBrown_____usedtobemonitorinourclass.Ifyouwanttoknowwhotheladyis,Icantellyouit’sher,MissBrown.Hereisastory______makesmerememberMissBrownunti

347、lnow.Oneafternoon,sheandIarrivedinNewYork,______wewouldlookforwardto.Wewenttothebiggestbookshop______thereweredifferentkindsofbookstobesoldin.There,shepersuadedmetoreadeverygrammarbook______couldoffermeknowledgeofgrammarandbuyadictionary_______Icouldlookupthenewwordsin.Justwhenweleftthebookshopandwerereadytogobacktoouruniversit

348、y,abigmanstoppedusandrobbedmeofmynecklace.MissBrowntriedherbesttohelpmeandlostoneofherfingers.68n洪家楼高级中学英语导学案姓名:组号:组内评价:教师评价:使用时间:2011.10.26主备人:李梦参与人员:许历马春华李家云科目:英语(1课时)学案序号:14Aims:90%学生能发现语法结构,60%学生能理解语法含义和规则,30%学生能准确应用Keypoints:积累语法规则知识,理解过去分词做定语和表语的语法功能Difficultpoints:在情境中理解语法,分析句子结构【Pre-class语法观察】Activity-1Haveatry你知道下面英语谚

349、语的意思吗?1Don’tcryoverspiltmilk.备注:2Apennysavedisapennygained.适用范Activity-2Trytounderstand你知道下面课文中的句子含义吗?围:全体划横线的部分起什么作用?学生Group1;1Manythousandsofterrifiedpeopledied.2Thediseasequicklyattackedthebodyandsoontheaffectedpersondied.背诵给3Heimmediatelytoldtheastonishedpeopletoremovethehandlefromthe出的相pump.关知识4JohnSnowwasabletoannouncewit

350、hcertaintythatpollutedwatercarriedthe点以及virus.语言点Group2:1Hethoughtabouthelpingtheordinarypeopleexposedtocholera.然后认2HefoundthatitcamefromtheriverpollutedbythedirtywaterfromLondon.真作答Group3:1Hebecameinspiredwhenhethoughtabouthelpingordinarypeople.2Hebecameinterestedintwotheoriesthatexplainedhowcholerakilledpeople.【While-class语法归

351、纳】Part1过去分词作定语的功能——表示“完成”或”被动“GroupA:1fallenleaves落叶(比较:fallingleaves)2aretiredteacher_______3thegonedays_________69nGroupB:1boiledwater开水(比较boilingwater)2cookedfood________3icedbeer_______4selectedapples_______5spokenEnglish________Exercises1根据语境,用所给词汇的恰当语法形式填空Afterastorm,theroadwasblockedby_______(fall)trees.Wecouldstillsee_

352、_______(fall)leavesinthewindeverydayinthisseason.The_______(broke)windowletthecoldairpourintooursmallroom.Beingbusylaying_______(fry)chipsontable,Motherdidn’tsparetimeforthe__________(boil)wateronthestove,Part2过去分词作定语的使用规则1单个过去分词做定语时,常常放在所修饰词语之前;有时也可放在所修饰词语之后ThebrokencupbelongstoMary.Hurryup,thereisonlyalittletimeleft.2过去分词短语做定

353、语时,须将分词放在所修饰词语之后,功能相当于一个定语从句,两者构成逻辑上的动宾关系Nearthewindow,thereisabookshelffilledwithmanybooks(=whichisfilledwithmanybooks)Hersonbroughtupbygrandmother(=whowasbroughtupbygrandmother)仔细审beguntowork.Exercises2根据语境,用所给词汇的恰当语法形式填空题作答1)Thehouse______(build)in1970wasburntdowninthebigfirelastnight.2)Thepupils_____(confuse)bytoomuchlearni

354、ngrefusedtodomorehomework.3)Themeeting,______(attend)byonethousandstudents,wasasuccess.4)Thereisa_____(satisfy)lookonhisfacewhenheheardthathissongotthefirstplaceintherace.5)“Things_______(lose)nevercomeagain.”Ican’thelptalkingtomyself.6)Mostofthescientists_________(invite)tothepartywerefromSouthAfrica.7)Priceofdailygoods______(

355、buy)throughacomputercanbelowerthanstoreprices.8)Aboy_______(call)Jackwonthegame.Part3过去分词作表语的功能和规则过去分词作表语表示主语的状态;当人做主语时还可以表示主语的思想情感;过去分此作表语,相当于形容词,最常见的有:amused,astonished,crowded,delighted,disappointed,discouraged,drunk,excited,hurt,interested,married,pleased,puzzled,satisfied,surprised,tired,worried.Whenweheardofit,weweredeepl

356、ymoved.Heseemedquitedelightedattheidea.Hisarticleiswellwritten.70nThekidsaresoexcitedaboutChristmasHebecameexcitedwhenheheardthenews.Shegotdressedandwentdownstairs.Exercises3根据语境,用所给词汇的恰当语法形式填空Longlongago,therewasatemple________(build)onthemountainandthereweretwo__________(interest)monks(和尚)inthetemplewhowere______(interest)in

357、playingchess.Oneday,theyagreedtoplaychesstogether.Thenextday,onemonkwas______(surprise)toseethattheothermonkcarrieda______(walk)stickinhand.Hesaidhewasinjuredbya_______(fall)treeandtheysawsome_____(fall)leavesontheground.实战演练:1.Thewaterinthisglassistoohot.Iprefersomecold________water.A.toboilB.havingboiledC.boiledD.boiling2.The

358、problemjust________isanimportantone.A.tobereferredtoB.referredtoC.referringtoD.referred3.——Amanwaskilled.——Whereisthebodyofthe________man?A.murderB.murderedC.murderingD.havingmurdered4.ChinaDaily,first_________in1980,isverypopularwithstudentsofEnglishinChina.A.publishedB.waspublishedC.havingpublishedD.havingbeenpublished5.Thegr

359、eathallwascrowdedwithmanypeople,________manychildren________ontheirparents’laps.A.including;seatedB.including;seatingC.including;satD.included;sitting6.——HowdidBobdointheexamthistime?——Well,hisfatherseems______withhisresults.A.pleasingB.pleaseC.pleasedD.toplease7.Pricesofdailygoods_______throughacomputercanbelowerthanstoreprice

360、s.A.areboughtB.boughtC.beenboughtD.buying8.——What’sthemainpurposeoftonight’smeeting?——Wearegoingtotalkabouttheproblem_______atthelastmeeting.A.discussedB.discussing71nC.beingdiscussedD.havingdiscussed9.Thefirsttextbooks________forteachingEnglishasaforeignlanguagecameoutinthe16thcentury.A.havingwrittenB.tobewrittenC.beingwritte

361、nD.written10.——Howdoyoudealwiththedisagreementbetweenthecompanyandthecustomers?——Thekey________theproblemistomeetthedemand________bythecustomers.A.tosolving;makingB.tosolving;madeC.tosolve;makingD.tosolve;made高考体验1(2008浙江)Itisoneofthefunniestthings______ontheInternetsofarthisyear.AfindingBbeingfoundCtofindDfound2(2008山东)Pleaser

362、emain____;thewinneroftheprizewillbeannouncedsoon.AseatingBseatedCtoseatDtobeseated3(2009上海)LastSunday,mycousinsentmeane-mail____metohisbirthdayparty.AinvitedBinvitingCtoinviteDhavinginvited4(2004上海)Thedisc,digitally_____inthestudio,soundedfantasticatthepartythatnight.ArecordedBrecordingCtoberecordedDhavingrecorded72nAcknowledg

363、mentsIwouldliketoexpressmysincerethankstomysupervisor,ProfessorLiuQian,whoalwaysgivesmevaluableadviceandmodificationthroughthethesispreparationandwritingandwhoseacademicknowledgeandattitudeimpressmealot.Also,IgreatlyappreciatethehelpofProfessorXiaoLongfu,ProfessorLiMin,ProfessorCaoChunchun,ProfessorWangDong,ProfessorYangBin,fro

364、mwhoselectureIbenefitalot.Thanksarealsorenderedtomycolleagues,whogavemeagreatdealofsupportandcorporation.73

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