交替传译中译员的角色分析

ID:76191880

大小:866.69 KB

页数:62页

时间:2022-01-14

当前文档最多预览五页,下载文档查看全文

此文档下载收益归作者所有

温馨提示:
1. 部分包含数学公式或PPT动画的文件,查看预览时可能会显示错乱或异常,文件下载后无此问题,请放心下载。
2. 本文档由用户上传,版权归属用户,天天文库负责整理代发布。如果您对本文档版权有争议请及时联系客服。
3. 下载前请仔细阅读文档内容,确认文档内容符合您的需求后进行下载,若出现内容与标题不符可向本站投诉处理。
4. 下载文档时可能由于网络波动等原因无法下载或下载错误,付费完成后未能成功下载的用户请联系客服处理。
网站客服:3074922707
   角色   

《交替传译中译员的角色分析》由会员上传分享,免费在线阅读,更多相关内容在学术论文-天天文库

1、分类号密级公开UDC编号20151250132专业学位论文交替传译中译员的角色分析——IBMCSC项目口译实践报告申请人姓名张晶晶导师姓名及职称邢杰副教授申请学位类别翻译硕士专业论文学科专业名称翻译硕士培养单位高级翻译学院学位授予单位广东外语外贸大学2017年5月31日n分类号密级公开UDC编号20151250132广东外语外贸大学专业学位论文AnalysisofInterpreter’sRolesinConsecutiveInterpreting——AReportontheInterpretingServicefo

2、rIBMCorporateServiceCorpsProgram交替传译中译员的角色分析——IBMCSC项目口译实践报告申请人姓名张晶晶导师姓名及职称邢杰副教授申请学位类别翻译硕士专业论文学科专业名称翻译硕士论文提交日期2017年5月31日论文答辩日期2017年5月23日答辩委员会贺显斌教授(主席)詹成(教授)王莹(讲师)学位授予单位广东外语外贸大学n独创性声明本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文是本人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的研究成果。据我所知,除了文中特别加以标注和致谢的地方外,论文中不包含其他人已经发表或撰写

3、过的研究成果,也不包含为获得广东外语外贸大学或其他教育机构的学位或证书而使用过的材料。与我一同工作的人对本研究所做的任何贡献均已在论文中作了明确的说明并表示谢意。作者签名:张晶晶签字日期:2017年5月31日学位论文版权使用授权书本学位论文作者完全了解广东外语外贸大学有关保留、使用学位论文的规定,有权保留并向国家有关部门或机构送交论文的复印件和磁盘,允许论文被查阅和借阅。本人授权广东外语外贸大学可以将学位论文的全部或部分内容编入有关数据库进行检索,可以采用影印、缩印或扫描等复制手段保存、汇编学位论文。作者签名:张晶晶导

4、师签名:邢杰签字日期:2017年5月31日签字日期:2017年日5月31日nAnalysisofInterpreter’sRolesinConsecutiveInterpreting——AReportontheInterpretingServiceforIBMCorporateServiceCorpsProgramByZhangJingjingSupervisedbyAssociateProfessorXingJieSubmittedinPartialFulfillmentoftheRequirementsforth

5、eDegreeofMasterofTranslationandInterpretingGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudiesMay2017inACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMysinceregratitudefirstlygoestomysupervisorassociateProfessorXingJiewhogavemepatientinstructiontohelpmefulfillmyreport.Hisstrictlyacademicrequirementintransla

6、tionstudyimpressedmealotandmakeshimmylifetimetutor.Mythanksalsogoestomycollege,SchoolofTranslationandInterpretinginGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies,whereIgotprofessionallytrainedintranslatingandespeciallyinterpreting,whichwasmydreamformanyyears.Hereby,Iwouldl

7、iketoextendmyheartfeltthankstomyfirstinterpretingteacher,QianFang.Shewasstricttousbutitwasherthatopenedmydoortobecomingainterpretinglearnerandexploringtheworldofinterpreting.Lastbutnotleast,Iwouldliketogivemygratitudetowardsmyfamily.Thankyouforselflesslysupporti

8、ngmetochasingmydreamforsomanyyears,thankyouforlettingmydoingwhatIlikeandthankyoufrombottomofmyheart.iinABSTRACTThedevelopmentofglobalizationcontributestofrequentexchangesamongcountriesandfacilitatescommunicationamongpeople.Invariedinterpretingoccasions,interpre

9、tersarevitaltoguaranteethatthecommunicationgoessmoothly.Asoneofpopularinterpretingforms,consecutiveinterpretingiswidelyappliedindifferentcross-culturaloccasionssuchaslecture,speech,training,andpressconference.Inconsecutiveinterpreting,theinterpreterassiststhespe

10、akertodeliverhis/heropinionandintention,duringwhichtheinterpreterplaysacrucialroleinpromotingthecommunication.Thisreport,basedonauthor’sinterpretingserviceforIBMCorporateServiceCorpsprogram,aimstoanalyzethreerolestheinterpreterplaysinconsecutiveinterpreting.This

11、reportincludestaskbackgrounddescription,taskpreparationprocess,taskdescriptionandcaseanalyses.Afterreviewingtherecordofthisinterpretingservice,theauthorexploresthreeroles---gatekeeper,conversationco-constructorandcommunicationcoordinator---thataninterpretershoul

12、dplayinconsecutiveinterpreting.Theauthorhopesthatbasedonthisconsecutiveinterpretingservice,thisreportcouldofferenlightenmenttointerpretingpractitionerssothattheycandotheirpartinfacilitatethecommunication.Keywords:consecutiveinterpreting,interpreter’sroles,cross-

13、culturalcommunicationiiin摘要随着全球化的发展,各个国家之间往来愈加频繁,人们之间的交流日益密切,译员在不同的口译场合中,为促进沟通的顺利进行发挥着重要的作用。作为一种常见的口译形式,交替传译被广泛应用于不同的跨文化交际场合,如讲座、报告、培训和新闻发布会。在交替传译中,口译员帮助发言人传达其观点和意图,在这个过程中,口译员扮演着关键的角色。本报告以IBMCSC项目口译实践为例,分析译员在联络口译中扮演的三种角色。笔者详细介绍了此次口译的活动任务描述,译前准备情况,口译过程描述,以及案例分析。

14、通过对此次口译实践的研究,详细讨论了译员在口译过程中扮演的三个角色---信息把关人,共同谈话者和交际过程协调者。作者希望以本人的联络口译实践为例,供其他译员借鉴,帮助译员在跨文化交流中贡献自己的绵薄之力。关键字:交替传译,译员角色,跨文化交流ivnCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.………………………………………………………………………………………..iiABSTRACT...................................................................

15、..........................................................iiii摘要...........................................................................................................................................ivCONTENTS.................................................

16、..............................................................................vLISTOFABBREVIATIONS.................................................................................................viiiLISTOFFIGURES..................................................

17、................................................................viiLISTOFTABLES...................................................................................................................vii1.PURPOSEOFTHISREPORT............................................

18、..................................................12.TASKDESCRIPTION...........................................................................................................32.1Taskbackground.....................................................................

19、.........................................32.2Descriptionofinterpreter.................................................................................................42.3Descriptionofclients........................................................................

20、................................52.4Clients’requirements........................................................................................................53.PREPARATIONPROCESS.................................................................................

21、.................73.1TaskConfirmation............................................................................................................73.2Pre-taskpreparation..............................................................................................

22、............83.2.1Backgroundinformationcollection...........................................................................83.2.2Glossarybuilding.......................................................................................................93.2.3On-site

23、preparation..................................................................................................113.3Emergencyplan..............................................................................................................123.4Interpretingschedule

24、......................................................................................................134.TASKPROCESSDESCRIPTION......................................................................................154.1InterpretingProcessDescription.............

25、.......................................................................154.2Clients’feedback............................................................................................................164.3Self-assessment..........................................

26、.....................................................................175.CASESTUDY.....................................................................................................................195.1Consecutiveinterpreting...................................

27、..............................................................195.2Rolesoftheinterpreter.....................................................................................................25.2.1Interpretersasgatekeepers..........................................

28、.............................................205.2.2Interpretersasconversationco-constructor.............................................................245.2.3Interpretersascommunicationcoordinators............................................................255

29、.3CaseAnalysis.................................................................................................................265.3.1Interpretersasgatekeepers.......................................................................................26vn5.3.2Interp

30、retersasconversationco-constructors...........................................................315.3.3Interpretersascommunicationcoordinators............................................................336.CONCLUSION................................................

31、....................................................................376.1Findings..........................................................................................................................376.2Limitations...........................................

32、...........................................................................396.3Suggestionsforfuturepractitioners................................................................................39REFRENCES..........................................................

33、.................................................................41APPENDICE............................................................................................................................43APPENDIXA...................................................

34、...................................................................43APPENDIXB.......................................................................................................................48vinLISTOFABBREVIATIONSA:AudienceI:InterpreterJ:JuditS:SpeakerL

35、ISTOFFIGURESFigure3-1InformationonPerformanceManagementFigure3-2VolunteerServiceLISTOFTABLESTable2-1InterpretingServiceoftheInterpreterTable3-2NamesofOrganizationsTable3-3GlossaryaboutIBMCSCProgramTable3-4GlossaryaboutStarsTable3-5InterpretingSchedulesviin1.PUR

36、POSEOFTHISREPORTItisknownthatthequalityoftheoutputiskeytojudgetheinterpreter’sperformance.Whentheauthorwasprofessionallytrainedtobeaninterpreterincollege,thematerialsgivenbytutorswereactuallytheon-siterecord,restoringthevenuetothelargestextent,speaker’saccent,to

37、ne,talkingspeedandnoiseonthesceneincluded.Students,includingtheauthor,triedtolisten,comprehended,graspedthemainidea,tooknotesandinterpreted.Whenteacherscommentedonstudents’performance,majorattentionwasfirstlygiventothecompletenessofthestructureorthelogic,thenthe

38、correctnessofkeypoints,andlastlythefluencyofthedelivery.Asinterpreters,studentswereconfinedtobealanguageconverter,automaticallyinterpretingeverywordandremainedinvisibleasmuchaspossible.However,inthisinterpretingservice,theauthornoticedhowarealtaskwasdifferentfro

39、mthoseexercisesintheclass.Sincethiswasthefirstformal,longtermfieldinterpretingservicefortheinterpreter,theauthorkeptwhatshewastaughtintheclassinmind,whileshefoundmanyunexpectedoccasionshappenedintherealworld.Forexample,onethingthathadbeenneglectedwasthatinthecla

40、sstraining,therecordingwasauthentic,butitwasselected.Thetutorhadalreadychosenthespeechwhichwassuitabletobetheinterpretingmaterialforstudents.Thosespeecheswerewellorganized,andtherewerenottoomuchredundancy.Whileinthereal-fieldinterpreting,speaker’sutterancewassom

41、etimespoorlyorganized.Iftheinterpreterstrictlyinterpretsaccordingtowhatspeakerssaid,theaudiencemayfeelconfused.What’smore,inrealfieldinterpreting,interpreterinteractedwithbothspeakersandaudience.Sometimesinterpreterhadsmalltalkswithspeakersoraudience.Sometimesth

42、espeakeraskedtheinterpreterquestionsprivatelyandthosequestionsdidnotneedtobeinterpreted.Inallthosecircumstances,interpretersarenotinvisiblebutassumecertainroles.However,thesepartsweredrewnoattentionintheclass.Inthisreport,theinterpreterdidnotplayaninvisiblerole.

43、Byreviewingthe1nrecordofthisreport,theauthorfoundthatsheassumedtheroleofagate-keeperoftheinformationthroughmakingadjustmentinthetargetlanguage,assumedtheroleofaco-constructorbyparticipatingintheconversationandassumedtheroleofacoordinatorbypushingforwardthecommu

44、nication.Itisevidentthatthequalityofthetargetlanguageisnottheonlyelementtojudgetheinterpreter.Therefore,threequestionswillbeansweredinthisreport:(1)Whatkindsofrolescaninterpretersplayinconsecutiveinterpreting?(2)Howdoesplayingrolesinfluencetheconsecutiveinterpre

45、tingprocess?(3)Whyshouldtheinterpreterassumerolesintheconsecutiveinterpreting?2n2.TASKDESCRIPTIONInthischapter,theauthorbrieflyintroducesthisinterpretingtaskincludingbackgroundinformationofthisinterpretingservice,andgeneraldescriptionofclients.2.1Taskbackground

46、Theauthorgotthistaskthroughoneoftherecruitmentwebsites.AtthebeginningofMarch,2016,theauthorsawthepostonthewebsiteaboutrecruitingaprojectassistantfortheIBMCorporateServiceCorpsprograminGuangzhou,fromApriltoMay,2016.Theserviceprovidedbytheassistantincludedsequenti

47、alinterpretationorwrittentranslation(bothways)duringtheprogram,facilitationinmeetingsandinterviewswithprojectstakeholders,andsupporttolocalteamforpreparingpresentationsinlocallanguage.Afterresumescreening,shegotthephoneinterviewfromthePYXERAGlobalinBeijing.Thein

48、terviewincludedself-introduction,interpretingexperienceintroductionandQ&A.Fortunately,theauthorpassedtheththinterviewandwasassignedtoworkfromApril15toMay15.TheCorporateServiceCorpswaslaunchedin2008tohelpcommunitiesaroundtheworldsolvecriticalproblemswhileprov

49、idingIBMemployeesuniqueleadershipdevelopmentopportunities.Bysendinggroupsof10-15individualsfromdifferentcountriesforcommunity-basedassignmentsinemergingmarkets,theprogramhashelpedover140,000peoplesinceitsinception.ThisprogramwascooperatedbyPYXERAGlobal,IBMandSta

50、rs.TheauthorwashiredbyPYXERAGlobal,aU.S.registerednonprofitorganization.PYXERAGlobalisaninternationalNGOthatleveragespublic,private,andvolunteerresourcestostrengthenbusinesses,institutions,andgovernmentsinemergingmarketsin90countriesonfivecontinents.ThreeIBMempl

51、oyeeswereassignedtoStars,alocalNGOinGuangzhou,to3nhelpStarsYouthDevelopmentCenterimproveitsstaffandvolunteerperformancemanagementsystemandtoprovideprojectmanagementtrainingtoitsstaffmembers.Inthisreport,theauthorinterpretedforoneoftheworkshopsaboutperformancema

52、nagementgivenbyJudit.Intheclosingceremony,theauthorinterpretedforthreespeakerswhogavetheircommentsontheworkingachievementsoffourNGOs.2.2DescriptionofinterpreterTheinterpreterforthistaskisaMTIpostgraduateinGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies.Beforeshewasadmittedb

53、yGDFUS,shewasanEnglish-majorstudent.Inhersophomoreyear,shejoinedinavoluntaryteachingactivityinShaanxiprovince,whichhadexposedhertothevolunteerrecruitingprocedure.Basedonherpreviousexperience,shehadbeenfamiliarwithvolunteeractivitiesandeducationconditioninruralar

54、easinChina.Thatexperienceenabledhertoexchangeideaswithforeigncolleaguesonvolunteerserviceandtogivesuggestions.Sinceitwasthefirstinternshipwhichgavefullgroundtoherinterpretingmajor,shedidafullypreparationonbothknownandunknownfields.Outofpassionforinterpreting,inp

55、ursuingbachelordegree,theauthorseizedopportunitytoinvolveherselfininterpretingactivitiesasmuchaspossible.Inpostgraduateperiod,shewassystematicallyandprofessionallytrainedbyexcellentteachers,whichqualifiedherforthistask.Herinterpretingexperienceislistedasfollows:

56、Table2-1Author’sInterpretingExperienceInterpretingexperienceServiceProvidedG20SummitTelephoneInterpretingandconsultingserviceforInterpreterforeignguestsandmediaattendingG20inemergencyvenuelikeairport,stationandcustom.The13thChinaInternationalInterpretedinthebusi

57、nessnegotiationSmallandMediumbetweenVietnamandChinesemerchantsEnterprisesFair4nChina-ItalyFestivalInterpretedforItalymerchants,helpedinselling,andassistedintheinterviewWestFairInterpretedforArabicmerchantsinpurchasingequipment2.3DescriptionofclientsThefullnameo

58、fIBMisInternationalBusinessMachinesCorporation.IBMisthelargestinformationtechnologyandsolutionproviderintheworld.Itsbusinessspreads160countriesandregions.InIBMCSCCoprsPrograms,12employeeswithrichexperiencefromdifferentcountries,goingthroughahigh-demandingselecti

59、ngprocess,weresenttofourNGOsinGuangzhou,whichwereStars,GETCH,QichuangandGuangzhouVoluntaryStationsAssociation.InStars,whichtheauthorworkedfor,threeIBMemployeeswereJuditBerczesfromHungary,AndresEsguerrafromUSA,andThomsonVarghesefromIndia.Foundedin2012,StarsYouthD

60、evelopmentCenterhasbeenfocusingonimprovingreadingcapabilityandaccessibilityforchildreninruralareasofChina.Manyschoolsinsmallvillageslackappropriatereadingmaterialsforprimaryschoolstudents,nottomentionanappropriatereadingenvironment.Someschoolsevenlackenoughbooks

61、foreachstudent,yetschooltimeisimportantforchildrentoformgoodreadinghabits,whichwilldeliveralifetimeimpact.Stars’sprogramsincludeconstructinglibrarieswithinexistingschools,providingreadingmaterials,andhostingregularreadingeventssoastoofferchildrenachancetoaccesst

62、oequalliteraryresources.2.4Clients’requirementsStarsYouthDevelopmentCenterisaGuangzhoubasednon-governmentalorganization.Itworksonimprovingreadingabilityforchildreninbackwardregionsthroughholdingreadingactivities,sendingbagswithbooksforeachstudents,andbuildinglib

63、rariesforlocalschool.However,itencounteredtwomajorproblemsinitsthrivingstage:firstly,asayoungNGO,Starshasnotbeenequippedwithdeveloped5nperformancemanagementsystemtoimproveemployees’efficiencyandmakeassessmentsonemployee’sperformance.Secondly,StarsholdsSummerRea

64、dingCampeveryyear,inwhichitrecruitsabout50volunteersamongover500candidates.Thewholerecruitingprocesslastsforamonth:selectingcooperatingprimaryschools,popularizingtheactivitiesincampus,andselectingcandidatesfor3rounds,onewrittenregistrationandtwointerviews,inwhic

65、hdesigningareadingclassforchildrenwasrequired.Havingsufferedfromthehugeworkloadforyears,Starswasinneedofagreatrecruitingmechanismtosimplifytherecruitingprocesswithoutdecreasingvolunteers’quality.Duringthewholeprogram,staffsfromIBMneedknowtheprogrammanagementstat

66、usindetailinordertoaddressStars’sconcerninlibraryprogrammanagementandperformanceassessment.Toachievethisgoal,theauthortranslatedlotsofmeetingminutes,monthlyreport,andpreviousactivitiesinformationtohelp.Besides,IBMstaffsneedinterviewdifferentdepartmentdirectorsto

67、familiarizethemselveswithcurrentvolunteer-recruitingmechanism,fund-raisingprogress,andemployeedistributionandsoon.Basedontheobjectivesofthisprogram,theauthordidnotonlyconsiderherselfasaninterpreter.ShewassupposedtoworkasamemberofStars,whohadagoodknowledgeaboutth

68、isorganizationinanall-roundway.HenceshetookeverychancetoknowaboutStars.Inthisinterpretingservice,theauthorinterpretedinaworkshopaboutperformancemanagement.Theinterpretershouldhavearoughknowledgeabouthowcurrentmanagementsystemworked.Sincesimilarsituationalsoworks

69、inotherthreeNGO.Theauthordonesimilarworktoknowthechallengesposedtothemandthesolutionsinordertodoabetterjobininterpretingcommentsintheclosingceremony.6n3.PREPARATIONPROCESSThischapterintroducesthepreparingprocessforthisinterpretingtask.Thepre-taskpreparationisof

70、greatimportanceasitisbasisforasuccessfulinterpreting.Inthisreport,asitwasthefirstfieldinterpreting,theauthormadeelaborativepreparationfromthreeaspectswhichareinformationcollection,glossarybuilding,andon-sitepreparation.Theauthorcategorizedthematerialunderonefold

71、erandwrotedownthekeypointsonthenotebookforfuturereference.Besides,theauthormadeanemergencyplanandlistedaninterpretingschedule.3.1TaskConfirmationThisreportwasbasedontheinterpretingserviceontheworkshopandclosingceremony.ThespeakerforworkshopwasJudit,fromHungary.A

72、fterdaysofcommunicating,theauthorfoundthatJuditspokequitestandardEnglish,andthespeedwasnormal.Thatsavedtheauthormuchenergytofocusonthepresentationshownthatday.Theauthorgotthepresentationtwodaysbeforetheworkshop.Thetopicwasaboutperformancemanagement.Itcomprisedof

73、fiveparts,whichwereWhyPerformanceManagement,Benefit-to-Employee,SupervisorandOrganization,SettingandCommunicatingExpectations,MonitoringProgressandPerformance,andAddressingPerformanceConcerns.Thecontentwaseasytounderstand,buttheauthorfoundthatevenifshelookedinto

74、dictionary,itwasstilldifficulttotranslatesometerminologyaccuratelyintoChinese.ThentheauthorconsultedHuangFengpin,theCOOofStars,aboutthetranslationofterminology.TohavebetterknowledgeaboutStars’smanagement,theauthorattendedmanymeetingsbetweenstaffsofIBMandStars,an

75、dkeptmainpointsrecorded.Also,theauthorreferredtomaterialofferedbyStarssuchasprogramplan,meetingminutes,summercampreports,librarybuildingbookletsandsoon.7nIntheclosingceremony,theauthorinterpretedforthreespeakerswhogavecommentsaftereachNGOshowingtheirworkingacco

76、mplishment.Havingnotgotanyinformationaboutthreespeakers,theauthortriedtograsptheinformationaboutthreeotherNGOs,whichareGETCH,QichuangandGuangzhouVoluntaryStationsAssociation.Thematerialaboutthemincludedorganizationdescription,organizationbackground,serviceandpro

77、grams,andorganizationclientsandbeneficiaries.3.2Pre-taskpreparationInthischapter,theauthordescribespreparingprocessofthisinterpretingtask.Itisstatedinthreeparts:backgroundinformationcollection,glossarybuildingandon-sitepreparation.3.2.1Backgroundinformationcolle

78、ctionAfterconfirmingthattheauthorwasgoingtobetheconsecutiveinterpreter,shetriedasmuchaspossibletocollectthepre-taskmaterialsothatshecanconveythespeaker’sinformationtotheaudienceaccuratelyandfacilitatethecommunicationbetweentheboth.Thebackgroundinformationwassort

79、edintotwocategories:1)Informationaboutperformancemanagement:Sincethetopicfortheworkshopwasperformancemanagement,theauthor,whohadnoknowledgeinthisfield,firstlyfamiliarizedherselfinthisarea.Firstofall,theauthorsearched“performancemanagement”inbing.com.Nowthatthesp

80、eakerwastogivingthespeechinEnglish,theinterpretershouldbefamiliarwiththeregisterofthisspecificfield.Secondly,shelookedintoeveryterminologyconcerningaboutitwhichconcludedmanagementdefinition,mechanism,value,procedure,aimandetc.Then,shediddetailedworkonStars’frame

81、work.WorkingwithcollegesofStars,translatingdocuments,andinterpretingassistanceininterviewhavehelpedhertransformfromalaymanintoan“expert”aboutitsmanagement,whichenabledhertoapplytheoreticalknowledgeinnon-governmentorganizations.Finally,shereferredtoitemssuchashum

82、anresources,assessmentmethodsandphilosophyrelated.8nFigure3-1InformationonPerformanceManagement2)DevelopmentandchallengesofotherthreeNGOs:Intheclosingceremony,threespeakersweregoingtogivetheircommentontheachievementmadebyfourorganizations.Asmentionedabove,asthe

83、projectassistant,theauthorworkedforoneofthem,StarsYouthDevelopmentCenter.Thatmeanttheauthorshouldalsobefamiliarwithotherthreeorganizations.Shedoneaveryin-depthresearch.Firstly,shereferredtowebsites,summarizingbasicinformationincludingorganizationstructure,busine

84、ssmodel,locationofclientsserved,targetbeneficiariesandorganizationvision.Secondly,throughcontactingwiththehostofthisprogram,PyxeraGlobal,theauthorgotmaterialabouttheircurrentmanagementstatus,challenges,aswellasobjectivesanddeliverablesforjoiningthisprogram.Nowth

85、atthespeechwasaboutworkingachievement,itwasnecessarytoknowproblemstobeaddressedandaimstobeachieved.Besides,theauthorpredictedthesolutions,someofwhichprovedtobetrue.Thirdly,theauthoralsoreferredtotheanticipatedimpactofthisprogram,projectstakeholdersandinfluencers

86、assupplementaryassistance.3.2.2GlossarybuildingTheglossaryfortwotaskswasmainlybasedonthecollectedmaterials.TheauthorwasluckytogetthePPToftheworkshopandconsultedCOOtoconfirmthe9ntranslationonsometerminology.Also,theauthorspenttimereadingthereferencesaboutfourNGO

87、sinordertohaveawholepictureinmind.Moreover,theauthorsearchedkeywordsabout“volunteerservice”and“performancemanagement”andsummedupvocabularythatmayappearinthespeeches.Glossaryissortedintofollowingthreeparts.Figure3-2VolunteerServiceTheglossaryislistedonthetablebel

88、ow:Table3-2NamesofOrganizations英文中文CommunistYouthLeagueofGuangzhou广州共产主义青年团GETCH(GuangzhouEnglishTraining广州残疾者英语培训中心CenterfortheHandicapped)GuangzhouFinanceBureau广州市财政局GuangzhouVoluntaryStationAssociation广州志愿驿站联合会IBM(InternationalBusinessMachines万国商业机器公司Corporat

89、ion)QiChuangSocialWorkServiceCenter启创社会工作服务中心StarsYouthDevelopmentCenter满天星青少年公益发展中心10nTable3-3GlossaryaboutIBMCSCProgram英文中文associatedegree大专文凭associationrebranding机构重塑buy-in买进get-go开始,开端IBMCorporateServiceCorpsProgramIBM企业服务团mantra口头禅probono无偿服务,专业志愿服务SOW(sta

90、tementofwork)工作说明书sociallymaladjustedyouth不适应社会环境的青年scopeofworld工作说明书userinterface用户界面web-portal网站门户fundraisingactivities筹款活动Table3-4GlossaryaboutStarsartisan工匠,技工beneficiaries受益人curtail缩短,缩减deliverables交付物employeeengagement员工参与度managementtrainingmanuals管理培训手册Pe

91、rformanceManagement绩效管理physicaldisabilities残疾,残障projectmanagement项目管理Redora星囊StarsLibraryProject满天星图书馆项目scopeofworld工作范围,作业范围supervisor/employeerelationship主管/员工关系unitproductivity团队生产力3.2.3On-sitepreparationThepre-taskpreparationisnevertoomuchtocopewiththereal-w

92、orldinterpretingno11nmatterhowsufficientlytheinterpreterprepares.Toguaranteethefluencyandaccuracyoftheinterpreting,theauthormadesurethatshefinishedthelaststepofthepre-taskpreparation---on-sitepreparation.Thedaybeforetheworkshop,theauthorcommunicatedwithJuditand

93、confirmedthefinalversionofthepresentationwithher.Shewasfriendlyandwouldthliketoexplaineverypointclearly.IntheafternoonofMay10,theauthoraskedthesizeofaudienceandpickedasuitableseatwhereboththeinterpreter’sandspeaker’svoicecanbereceivedclearly.Ontheclosingceremony

94、,theauthorarrivedatthevenueearlyandcommunicatedwiththehostess.Informedoftheprocedureoftheceremony,theauthorconfirmedtheappearingorderofeachspeaker.Afterthreespeakersweretoldthattherewasgoingtobeaninterpreterforthem,theypromisedthattheywouldnotspeakfortoolongtime

95、ortoofast.3.3EmergencyplanAccordingtoherinterpretingexperienceandthewayshewastrainedtomakeanelaborativepre-taskpreparation,theauthoractivelyanticipatedpossibleemergentoccasionsinrealfieldinterpretingandmadecontingencyplantodealwithdifficulties:1)PreparationforUn

96、familiarTermsAlthoughtheauthorhadtriedherbesttoremembernamesoforganizations,shestilllistedallwordsshefearedtoforgetonthenotebookandkeptitatherhand.Also,intheclosingceremony,sheneededstandonthecornerofthestagewithoutpenornotebook,soshemadeahandcardasassistance.2)

97、CommunicationwithClientsSomeofStarsstaffscouldmoreorlessspeakEnglish,butthatdidnotmeantheyknewaboutinterpretationverywell.Previously,Kevin,CEOofStars,askedthatwhethertheauthorcouldsimultaneouslyinterpretintheworkshop.Actually,theworkingvenuewasinStars’soffice,wh

98、ichwaslocatedinavillageofGuangzhou,12nandactuallytherewasnotanyfacilitytodosimultaneousinterpreting.Soshekindlyexplainedtohimthatshewouldtakedownnotesandshewouldtryherbesttodoaperfectconsecutiveinterpretingwhichcouldalsodeliveryspeaker’sinformation.Andalso,some

99、ofChinesespeaker’sdeliverywaspoorlyorganized.Chinesepeopletendedtorepeatsomewordstoemphasisorgivesomeambiguousexpression,soitfrequentlyhappenedthattimespamforEnglishinterpretationwaslessthanthatofChinesediscourse.AndtheauthorcouldtellthedoubtfulexpressiononChine

100、sepeople’sfacebecausehefoundthatnotallhiswordswereinterpretedintoEnglish.Therefore,theauthorexplainedinadvancethatshewasaninterpretingmajorstudentinGDFUSandhadbeenprofessionallytrainedforalmostoneyearsothatherclientwouldbeassured.3.4InterpretingscheduleAfterfini

101、shingherjobinthisprogram,theauthorchosetwointerpretingexperienceinthisprogramasresearchingmaterialforthisreport.BasedonmaterialshegotfromIBMandStars,shesearchedtopic-relatedinformationontheinternetandaskedstaffinStarsforhelp.Interpretingscheduleislistedonthebelo

102、w:Table3-5InterpretingScheduleDATECONTENTthApril13,2016ConfirmationoftheinternshipandcontractsignaturerdthMay3to9,2016ConfirmationofthetaskandpreparationthMay10,2016WorkshopthMay11,2016ConfirmationofthetaskandpreparationthMay15,2016ClosingceremonyofIBMCSCProgram

103、13n14n4.TASKPROCESSDESCRIPTIONInthischapter,theauthordescribestheinterpretingserviceindetailincludingvenuedescriptionandinterpretingmode.Theendoftheinterpretingprocessdoesn"tmeantheendofthetask.Therefore,theauthorcollectedclients"feedbackandmadeself-

104、assessment,whichcanbedeemedasgreatopportunitytofindtheweaknessandimprovementspace.4.1InterpretingProcessDescriptionthTheworkshopwasheldat2pmofMay10,2016,inStars’soffice.TheworkingmodewasthatthespeakerJuditgaveaspeechaboutperformancemanagement.Inthelatterpart,Jud

105、itinteractedwiththeaudiencebyaskingquestionsandsharingherviewsabouttheanswers,sotheauthordidbothwaysinterpretingamongwhichEnglish-Chineseinterpretingtookuplargerpart.Theauthorwasseatedattheleftsideofthefirstrow.ThescreenshowingthePPTwasinthefrontofthemeetingroom

106、.Therewereabout30participants.Withoutmicrophones,boththespeakerandtheauthorspokeasloudlyaspossible.Duetothefrequentpausesoftheinterpreter-friendlyspeakerandthefacilitationofthePPT,theauthortooknonotes,andconveyedthemessagetotheaudience.Alltheprocesswasrecordedby

107、avoicerecorder.thOnMay15,2016,theclosingceremonywasheldattheYouthPalaceinBeijingRoad,Guangzhou.Theauthorarrivedatthevenuehalfanhourearlierbeforeitstarted.TheworkingmodewasthataftereachNGOgavetheirpresentationaboutworkachievement,therewouldbeacommentfromeachspeak

108、er.Altogether,therewerethreespeakers.Whentheymadethecomment,theystoodinthefrontofthehallwithamicrophone.Theinterpreterstoodatthecornerofthestageandalsohadamicrophone.Bothspeakersandtheinterpreterstoodfacingtheaudience.Thewhole15nprocesswasChinese-Englishconsecu

109、tiveinterpreting.Theauthorwastoldthattherewasnoconditionandnoneedfornote-taking,soduringthewholeprocesssheusedworkingmemoryinsteadofnotetoremembertheutteranceofspeakers.Thatleftgreatpressuretotheinterpreter.4.2Clients’feedbackKurz(1989)putforwardthatthequalityof

110、theinterpretationshouldnotonlybejudgedbyinterpretersthemselves,butalsobedecidedbywhethertheinterpretationhassatisfiedinterpreter’sexpectation.Clients’feedbackisoneofthemosteffectivewaystojudgeinterpreter’sperformance.Thepraiseshowstheinterpreter’sdeliveryisaccur

111、atewhileevenaconfusedfaceoftheaudiencecanserveasanegativeevaluationtotheinterpretingquality.Duringtheworkshop,theinterpreterfacilitatedthecommunicationbetweenthespeakerandaudience.Thecozyandfriendlyatmospheremadetheinterpreterrelaxed.Whenseeingthespeaker’ssmilea

112、ndaudience’snod,whichshowedthattheyhavecomprehendedtheinterpreter’soutput,theinterpretergainedmuchconfidence.Theworkshopconcludedsmoothlywiththeassistanceoftheinterpreter.Aftertheendoftheworkshop,themanagerofStarscametotheinterpreterandsaidthatshehasdoneagreatjo

113、bandtheworkshopwassuccessful.Andalsooneoftheinternstudentsaidthatshelearnedalotintheworkshopwiththeinterpreter’shelp.Intheclosing-ceremonytask,inoneoccasion,oneofthespeakersmadeajokeandexplaineditforsometime.Theinterpreterthoughtthatwasunnecessarytointerpretsosh

114、efilteredthismessage.Inanotheroccasion,theinterpreterstuckbythenamesofalocalgovernmentandaregulationissued,sotheEnglishinterpretationismuchshorterthantheChineseutterance.However,thehostess,whomasteredEnglishwell,recognizedthisinterpretingserviceandgavesatisfying

115、remarkstotheinterpreter’sperformance.16n4.3Self-assessmentIngeneral,theauthorthoughtshedidanapprovingjobaccordingtoaudience’sandclients’feedback.Intheworkshop,thefirstfieldinterpretingwithaudiencewasarelativelyeasytaskbecausetheauthorhadcommunicatedwithmostpart

116、icipantsandthespeaker.Thatwasalsothefirsttimefortheauthortoknowhowdifferentitwasbetweenpracticeandreal-worldinterpreting.Inthefieldinterpreting,theinterpretershouldnotonlyapplytheprofessionalskillsandproficientlanguage,butalsoconveythemessagewithappropriatemanne

117、r.Thatcanhelpmakeeffectiveinteraction.Forexample,whenthespeakerexplainedwhatwas“SMART”goal,shegavesomeexamplesandaskedstudentsfortheiropinions.Chinesestudentstendedtokeepsilenceinsuchoccasionsthatmadethespeakerstandthereandjustwaitfortheirvoice.Undersuchcircumst

118、ance,theauthorinterpretedwithpositiveandlivelytoneratherthanjustgaveaplaininterpretation,hopingsomeonecouldbeavolunteer.Thatshowedthatinterpretersneedadjusthertoneandwayofmanneraccordingtothecontent.Theclosingceremonywasthefirstformalfieldinterpreting.Thistaskwa

119、sachallengingonebecauseitwasalittleformalandtherewasnoconditionfortakingnotes.Itwasanall-roundwaytesttotheinterpreter’sshortmemoryability,sotheinterpreterfeltquietnervousandstressedatthebeginning.Duringoneofinterpretingsegments,theinterpreterforgotonemajorpoint,

120、soshehadtoomitsomedetail.Thatwentagainsttheprincipleofinformationfidelity.What’smore,thetensioninfluencedherlanguagefluency.17n18n5.CASESTUDYInthischapter,theauthorfirstlyintroducesthedefinitionofconsecutiveinterpreting,andthefeaturesthatdistinguishitfromother

121、typesofinterpreting.Then,theauthordescribesrolestheinterpreterplays,whichareinformationgatekeeper,conversationco-constructorandcommunicationcoordinator.Theauthorexplainshowtheinterpreterplaysthreeroleswithnineexamples.5.1ConsecutiveinterpretingPöchhacker(2009:11

122、)formulateshisdefinitionofinterpretingasfollows:InterpretingisaformofTranslationinwhichthefirstandfinalrenditioninanotherlanguageisproducedonthebasisofaone-timepresentationofanutteranceinasourcelanguage.Accordingtointerpretingresearchesinwesterncountries,interpr

123、etationcanbedividedintotwocategories:simultaneousinterpretingandconsecutiveinterpreting(Pöchhacker,2009:208).Consecutiveinterpretingmeansinterpretersandspeakersspeakconsecutively.Theinterpreterexpressesthespeaker’sideainanotherlanguageafterlisteningandunderstand

124、ing.Theinterpretingsegmentsusuallylastseveralminutes.Consecutiveinterpretingiswidelyappliedinlecture,speech,trainingandpressconference.Inconsecutiveinterpreting,informationisdeliveredinonedirectionsotheinterpreterinterpretsinoneway:eitherChinesetoEnglishorEnglis

125、htoChinese.Inthisoccasion,thespeakergivesaspeechorreport,andaudiencelistenbutdonotreplytothespeaker.Therefore,thespeakeristheonlyinformationdisseminator,theaudienceisinformationreceivers,andtheyrarelyinteractwithoneanother.However,liaisoninterpreting,whichbelong

126、stodialogueinterpreting,isoftenusedinbusinessnegotiation,receptionandvisiting.Participantsarebothspeakersandlistener,so19ninteractionfrequentlyhappensbetweentwosides.Theinterpreterinterpretsinbothways,overcominglanguagebarrier,tofacilitatethecommunicationbetwee

127、ntwoormorespeakers,duringwhichtheinterpreterworksasabridgeconnectingdifferentcultures(Gentileetal.1996).Consecutiveinterpretinghasfollowingfeatures.Firstly,itisareal-timetask.Inconsecutiveinterpreting,thespeechdisappearedassoonasitisdeliveredbythespeaker,without

128、leavingthecontentinanyformfortheinterpretertoprocess.Inthemeantime,itleavesnotimefortheinterpretertopausebecausehe/sheneedtointerpreterimmediatelytoguaranteethecommunicationgoessmoothly.Secondly,itiscommunication-oriented.Asacommunicativebridge,theinterpreterexp

129、ressesthespeaker’sopinionandideatothetargetaudience.Thatrequirestheinterpretertostandinthespeaker’sshoesandconveythemessageinawaythatcanbeeasilyunderstoodbyaudienceratherthanmechanicallyinterpretingwordforword.Thirdly,duetothespecialoccasionofconsecutiveinterpre

130、ting,thespeechiscolloquial,whichmeansthethestructureisnotnecessarilywellorganized.Theinterpretershouldappropriatelyadjustthestructureandmakefulluseofthefacialexpressionandtonetoachievethecommunicativeeffects.Besides,inseveralconsecutiveinterpretingoccasions,ther

131、eisusuallynoneedornoconditionfornote-taking.Therefore,theinterpretershouldbeequippedwithhighsummarizingandmemorizingability.5.2Rolesoftheinterpreter“Role”referstobehaviorandattitudesthatamanshouldadoptinsocialcommunication.Asamatteroffact,peoplemayhavetheirownde

132、finitionstowardsinterpreter.Jones(2002)claimsasfollows:"Imaginetwopeoplesittinginaroom.Theymaybepoliticians,businessmenorwomen,tradesunionistsscientists.Theywishtodiscusstheirworkbutspeakdifferentlanguages,andneitherspeakstheother"slanguagewellenoughfo

133、rthediscussiontobeuseful.Sotheycallinsomeoneelse,whospeaksbothlanguages,toexplainwhateachissayinginturn.Thatpersonisaninterpreter."20nItisperceivedthatacompetentinterpretershouldprovide“accurate,complete,andfaithfulrendition”(Pöchhacker2009:147)andremainne

134、utralinanydiscourses.BrianFoxsuggeststhatinterpretersshouldbe“unseenphysically”andonlybeseenwhenmakingamistake(DaiandCao2014:89).Thefunctionoftheinterpreterwasoncecomparedtothatofa“machine”,whichtranslatesonelanguagetoanotherinaword-for-wordmanner.Laterthe“machi

135、ne”wasreplacedby“faithfulecho”,“passageway”,“conduit”,“conveyorbelt,“modem”and“input-outputrobot”(Knapp,1986).Itwasonlywiththeprofessionalismofinterpretinginthecourseoftwentiethcenturythattheinterpreter’srolebecamecodifiedinmorespecificterms,makingtheissueofrole

136、anintegralpartofprofessionalcodesofethicsandpractice(Roy,2000).Astheunderstandingofinterpretingdeepens,moreandmoreresearchershavebeguntorealizethattheroleoftheinterpreterisneither“aninvisibleman”nor“atranslationmachine”,butratheranimportant“communicationfacilita

137、tor”,“culturalinter-mediator”and“interculturalmediator”andtheidealroleoftheinterpretershouldnotbelimitedtolanguagemiddleman,butshouldalsoincludeculturalinter-mediator(Roy,2000).Inthelate1950s,withthedevelopmentofinterpretingindustry,theInternationalAssociationof

138、ConferenceInterpreters(AIIC)specifiedthestandardsandcodesofpracticeforinterpreters.Itwasuntilthenthatthegeneralpublicstartedtoviewtheinterpreterinadifferentandmorediversifiedway.Theroleoftheinterpretergraduallybecameapartofinterpretationethicsandstandards.Andfor

139、anextendedperiodoftimeinthehistoryofinterpreting,theroleoftheinterpreterintertwinedwithvisibleagentssuchasamessenger,aguideoranegotiator.TheAmericansocialistAndersonputforwardthattheinterpreterplayedcertainrolesininterpreting(Anderson2002:214).Roymadeitclearthat

140、theinterpreterwasanactivethirdpartyintheconversation,exertinginfluenceonthedirectionandoutcomeoftheconversation(Roy1989:5).Consideringthefeatureofconsecutiveinterpreting,inwhichinterpretersneedunderstandthemainideafromspeakers’pointofviewandinterpretthesourcelan

141、guageinawaythathelpsaudiencegraspspeaker’s21nidea,interpreterscannotbeinvisibleandexertnopersonalinfluenceatall.Playingcertainrolesinconsecutiveinterpretingmeansthatwhenliteraltranslationdoesnotworkandculturalconflictsoccur,theinterpretershouldemploysubjectivit

142、ytomakethemessageaccuratelyexpressedinthetargetlanguageandacceptedbytargetaudience,whichfreetheinterpreterfromtheappendantofthespeaker(Liu,2012:197-200).Accordingtotheauthor’scomprehension,therearethreebasicdemandsfortheinterpretertoassumingrolesinconsecutiveint

143、erpreting.Firstofall,theinterpretershouldbefamiliarwiththeactivityandclients,includingbackground,beneficiaries,issuestobeaddressedandanticipatedconclusion.Secondly,theinterpreterneedclearlyknowabouttherelationsamongpeopleinvolved,becauseitwilldecidetheinterprete

144、r’swording,toneandwayofexpression,whichmayexertinfluenceoncommunicationatmosphereandoutcome.Besides,intheinterpretingprocess,theinterpreteroughttounderstandthecauseandeffectofeachdiscourse,especiallythepurposeofthespeaker.Thegoalofconsecutiveinterpretingistohelp

145、speakerdeliverhis/heropiniontotheaudience,andmanyfactorssuchasbodylanguage,facialexpression,toneofspeech,andwordingcaninfluencetheresultsofthespeech.InhisbookTranslation,RewritingandtheManipulationofLiteraryFame,LefeveregaveanexamplethatEdwardFitzgerald,theninet

146、eenth-centurytranslatorofthePersianpoetOmarKhayyam,consideredPersiansinferiorandfeltheshould‘takeliberties’inthetranslationinorderto‘improve’ontheoriginalandtoconformwiththeexpectedwesternliteraryconventionsofhistime(LefevereinMunday2010:128).Therefore,theconsec

147、utiveinterpreter’staskisnotrepeatingone’swordsintheotherlanguage.He/sheneedadjustthewayofexpression,omitsomewordsoraddgestures.Thiskindofworkisalsothejobforaninterpreterandhe/shedoesittoensurethatthecommunicationgoessmoothlyandeffectively.Inthisprocess,interpret

148、er’scharacterandpersonalitycanbeeasilyfoundintheoutputdelivery.Fromtheabovedefinition,itcanbeseenthattheinterpreterissupposedtoemployinventivenessintheinterpretingpractice.Thecontextchangeswiththe22ncommunicationprocess,sotheinterpreterneedadjusthis/herchoicesa

149、ccordingtothechangingcontext(Mo2010:103-111).Playingcertainrolesendowsfreedomandinitiativeforinterpreter,butthatcannotbetheexcusefortheinterpretertointerpretathis/herownwill.Therefore,weneedacriteriontojudgetheinterpreter’sperformance.“Beingloyal”istheresponsibi

150、litytheinterpretershouldtakefortheoriginaltextaswellasthespeaker(Duan2008:52).Hereby,threerolesofinterpreterplayingintheconsecutiveinterpretingarestated.5.2.1InterpretersasgatekeepersWheninformationspreadsamongagroup,onlytheinformationwhichmeetsthenormofthegroup

151、orthegatekeepercanbeaccessibletothisgroup.Inthisprocess,thegatekeeperprocessesinformationsothatitcanbeeffectivelyreceivedandcomprehendedbyaudienceandmisunderstandingaswellasconflictswillbeavoided.Asthegatekeeperininterpreting,theinterpreterisatriple-roleperson:H

152、e/sheisthefirstreceiverofthemessage,thegatekeeper,andtheinformationdisseminator.He/hertakesdownnotesorkeepsmajorinformationpointsinmind,recodes,andreproducesitintheotherlanguage.Intheinterpretingprocess,interpreters,asbridges,connectpeoplespeakdifferentlanguages

153、.EquippedwithbilingualabilityandgoodknowledgeofbothChineseandwesternculture,insteadofmechanicallyrepeatingspeaker’sutteranceintotargetlanguage,interpretersmakeadjustmenttofacilitatethecommunicationbetweenbothparties,sohe/hertaskisnotonlyinterpreting,butalsoengag

154、inginthedialogue.Duetodifferentwaysofthinking,variouscustom,traditionandvalueconcept,peopledon’tsharecommonobservationtowardssametopic.Oncetheinappropriateexpressiongetsreceivedbytheaudiencewithouttheprocessingofgatekeeper,communicationmayencounterdifficulties.T

155、heinterpretershouldbeawareofthecontext,sothathe/shecandecidethecontent,theamountandwayofexpressionaccordingtotraditionandcustomininterpreting(Hymes1972:269-293).Inordertorealizesuccessfulnegotiation,whileofferingprofessionalinterpreting23nservice,theinterpreter

156、sgate-keeptheinterpretingprocessbyfilteringoutinformationwhichmayleadtomisleading,explainingambiguousexpressionanddeletingredundancy.Also,theinterpretergate-keepsbothways:fromChinesetoEnglishandfromEnglishtoChinese.5.2.2Interpretersasconversationco-constructorIn

157、terpretingprocess,asasocializinginteraction,involvesthreeparties:speakersfromtwosidesandinterpreters.Inthisoccasion,theinterpreterhasdirectrelationwithbothspeakersandlisteners,andspeakersandlistenershaveindirectrelationwitheachotherthroughtheinterpreter.Ininterp

158、retingprocess,deliveryofinterpreterscanbedividedintotwoparts:interpretationofspeakersandinterpreters’ownutterance,that’swhyinterpreters,asparticipantsofthecommunication,arecalledconversationco-constructor.Accordingtotheauthor’sexperience,itisinevitablefortheinte

159、rpretertoplaytheroleasconversationco-constructor.OnceshewasaconsecutiveinterpreterforanAustralianCEO.AtapartyheldbyaChinesemanager,herclients,theAustralianaskedherwhetherheshouldpayhisshareforthedinneralthoughheknewthattheChinesewasthehost.Theinterpreterkindlyex

160、plainedthatinChineseculture,guestsneednotpaysincesomeonehassaidhewasgoingtotreat.Inthisoccasion,ratherthaninterpretingspeakers’words,theinterpreterexpressedherownideatoherclient.Thatwasadialoguebetweenherandherclient.Althoughnointerpretationwasinvolved,thedialog

161、uehasfacilitatedthecommunication.Inotheroccasions,interpreter’sdeliveryiscombinationofinterpretationandhis/herownperspectives.Onceinacasualtalk,theChineseclientintroducedtotheforeignersthathissonwaspursuingadegreeinaProject211university.Inthisoccasion,literalint

162、erpretationmayconfusetheforeignpeople,sotheauthorexplainedthatProject211universitiesmeansthetop100universitiesnamedbythecountryinstthe21century.24n5.2.3InterpretersascommunicationcoordinatorsWadensjo(1998)hasassumedanidealcommunityinterpretingmodelwhichcomprise

163、doftheinterpreterandtwospeakers.Thecommunicationprocessgoeswithturn-takingfromdifferentparticipants.ThatmeansthespeakingorderisfromspeakerAtotheinterpreterandthentothespeakerB,andspeakerBtotheinterpreterandthentheinterpretertospeakerA.Healsoassumedthatinthismode

164、l,theinterpreterinterpretsnothingbutwhatspeakerssaid.Theinterpreterisneithersupposedtoinvolveinactivitieswhichhavenorelationwithinterpretationnorcoordinateorinterveneintheprocess.Asinformationtransmitters,interpretersshouldstandneutrally,andmakethemselvesinvisib

165、le.Whenpeoplespeakthesamelanguageandwhentheyareexpressingtheirownopinions,theycanfreelycontrolthestart,end,andexchangeoftheturnbecausetheyareinthesameculturalbackground.However,whenspeakersspeakdifferentlanguagesandtheycannotunderstandeachother,clientsonbothside

166、swillnotrealizeanysignalaboutpause,ending,orbeginningofaturnintheotherlanguage.Accordingtoauthor’sexperience,speakersalwayslookatherunconsciouslytoseeherresponseeventhoughsheisonlyaninterpreterbutnotthespeaker.Therefore,inconsecutiveinterpreting,theinterpreteris

167、theonlyonewhoknowsbothlanguagesandculturalbackgrounds,sotheinterpreterbecomestheonlypeoplewhocanmaintainoradjusttheconversation,andtheonlyonewhocanpushforwardthecommunicationintoarightdirection.Duringthisprocess,theinterpreterplaysaroleascommunicationcoordinator

168、.Ininterpretingprocess,sometimestheclientneededpausetoorganizehis/herlanguage,whiletheinterpretermaytakeitasofferingaturn.Sointerpreterandclientwillstartatthesametime.Theinterpreterneedsjudgewhetherthespeakerwantstocontinueorstoptolethim/herinterpret.Inotherocca

169、sion,ifonepartykeepstalkingforalongtime,andtheinterpreterfindstheotherpartywantstovoicetheirideaoutbutfeelsorrytointerrupt,afterinterpreting,theinterpreterwillturntothemtopasstheturntothem.Likewise,theinterpreterwillgiveagesturetostopaturnsothatthe25nothersidec

170、anfinishhis/hertalking.Itisuptotheinterpreterto“savecross-culturalcommunicationfromcollapsinginfailureorpushingthingsfurthertowardstheedgeofthecliff”(Zhan2013:11).Insomeextremesituation,whenbothpartiesareinculturalconflict,orinirreconcilabledispute,andthenegotia

171、tionisontheedgeoffailure,theinterpretercanterminatetheturnbyrecommendingateabreaktostoptheconversationforawhile.5.3CaseanalysisGrice(1975:45)pointedoutthat“makeyourconversationcontributionsuchasisrequired,atthestageatwhichitoccurs,bytheacceptedpurposeordirection

172、ofthetalkexchangeinwhichyouareengaged”.AsGriceimplied,interpretersaresupposedtoinvolveintheconversation,andtofullyunderstandrelationsamongdifferentspeakersandtheirintention,inordertobevisibleandmakecontributiontotheconversationwhenneeded.Griceemphasizedthenecess

173、ityofassumingrolesforinterpreter.Hereby,theauthorlistsninecasesoutoftheinterpretingreporttoillustratehowtheinterpreterplaysthreeroles:theinformationgatekeeper,theconversationco-constructorandthecommunicationcoordinator.5.3.1InterpretersasgatekeepersAsasocializin

174、gactivity,interpretingisnotmerelyalanguagetransformationactivity.Toachievecommunicativegoals,theinterpretershouldbeequippedwithexcellentbilingualabilityaswellasknowledgeofbothcultures.Indealingwithsophisticatedsentencestructure,interpretersbridgebetweendifferent

175、culturesinadynamicprocessratherthantransfertheoriginallanguageintotargetlanguage(Ren2011:165).Interpretersneedworkasgatekeeperstoguaranteetheprocessgoessmoothly.Mostspeakers’discourseisnotdrafted.Eveniftheyaddressspeeches,partofdiscourseismadespontaneously.Thati

176、stosay,thediscoursecannotbeperfecteitheringrammar,wording,orinlogic.Asgatekeepers,whileprovidinginterpretingservice,inthetargetlanguage,interpretersshouldavoidredundantexpressions,make26nambiguousinformationclearandspecific,correctwrongexpressions,adjustoromiti

177、nappropriatestatements.Theinterpretershouldadoptaflexiblewaytodealwithvarioussituationsinordertopushforwardthecommunicationinarightdirection.(1)GatekeeperofUnrelatedInformationCase1:S3:充分说明我没有站在全球的视野上,所以刚才说话太快了一点,还是在广州本土的说话这种模式,不好意思。我想有三点我特别有感受的。第一点,我觉得这个活动抓住了一个

178、慈善的核心。大家都知道这个慈善法刚颁布,而且有专门的一章叫慈善服务。I:Iwouldliketosharewithyouthreeobservationsaboutthismeeting.Firstly,thispartyischaritythemed.WeknowthatthereisanewcharitylawpublishedinChinaandthereisaspecificchaptercalledcharityservice.Usually,speaker’sutterancewillbemoreorles

179、sdifferentfromthedraftheprepared,sonewcontentisaddedcontingently.Maybeitwasthefirsttimeforthespeakertogiveaspeechwithaninterpreter,andthatmeantheshouldstopfromtimetotime.Inhisfirstsegment,hespokeforarelativelongtimewithoutstopping.Oneofaudiencerealizedthatitleft

180、hugememorizingpressurefortheinterpretersohekindlyremindedspeakerbygivinghimagesture.Therefore,afterauthor’sinterpretation,atthebeginningofhissecondsegment,hestartedwithanapology.Sincethesentenceunderlinedwasanexplanationoutofpoliteness,suchkindofinsertionhadnoth

181、ingtodowiththetopic.ItmightbringlaughtertoChineseaudiencebutgiverisetopuzzleforEnglishaudience.What’smore,ininterpretingprocess,interpretershouldusethefirstpersonalpronoun.Ifsheinterpretedspeaker’sapologyinthefirstpersonalpronoun,audiencemayfeelconfusedaboutwhat

182、shesaid.Thus,theinterpreterdeletedthispartinthetargetlanguage.Interpretergatekepttheinformationbydeletingredundancytoachievecommunicativepurpose.(2)GatekeeperofRedundancyCase2:27nS3:通过我个人感受,我相信我们四个机构,你们最大的收获有一点,就是知道,世上有很多事情,是可以换一个角度,换一种思维,有另外一种可能,可以去实现的,更美好的目标。

183、I:IbelievealloftheNGOmemberswillagreewithmethatwecansolveaproblemthroughadifferentperspectivetoachievegoals.Usually,speaker’sutterancewillbedifferentfromthedraftheprepared,sonewcontentisaddedcontingently.RepeatingishardtoavoidinChineseutterancebecauseChinesepeop

184、letendtorepeattolaystressonthemajorpointsandusuallytheseexpressionsaresimilartoeachother.However,simplicityandconcisionaresoughtinEnglish.Thespeakerused“换一个角度”,“换一种思维”,and“另外一种可能”toemphasizethatitwasimportanttobeinnovativeandbreakthemind-set,butitisunnecessaryto

185、repeatitforthreetimesinEnglish.TomakeitauthenticEnglish,theauthorkeptoneexpressionhere.Nowthatinterpreter’sjobistoexpressthemessageofthesourcelanguagetotargetaudienceratherthantranslatewordforwordthedeletionheredoesnotmeanleavingsomeinformationoutbutdeletethered

186、undancy.Therefore,interpreterdeletedtheredundancy;otherwisetheEnglishaudiencemaythinkthespeakerisverboseandwastingtime.(3)GatekeeperofAmbiguityCase3:S3:所以刚才当我听到志愿者最后一个项目,志愿驿站的项目,包括最后那个同事的分享,就是为什么有那么多好奇,并不是因为她仅仅好奇而已,而是试图想去改变,而改变很重要。I:InthelastpresentationgivenbyG

187、uangzhouVoluntaryStationAssociation,theymentionedthatAmy,oneoftheIBMstaffwascuriousabouteverything.Thisisnotonlyaboutcuriosity.Thisshowsthatshewantstothinkofaninnovativeideatomakeachange.Beforethethirdspeaker’sspeechwasmade,GuangzhouVoluntaryStationAssociationga

188、veareportabouttheirachievementinthisprogram.TheheadoftheorganizationwassogratefulaboutIBMstaffs’dedicationandshowedhersincere28ngratitudetothem.Especially,theleaderwasimpressedbyoneoftheIBMemployee,Amy,forhercuriosityabouteverythingandtheleaderspokehighlyofher.

189、TheheadsaidthatonceAmynoticedthatcupsusedinGVSAweremadeofwood,andAmyaskedthatwhethertheycanreplacewoodencupswiththoseofothermaterialwhichisenvironmentalfriendlyandlessmoney-consuming.Inthethirdcommentspeech,thespeakertookitasanexampletoemphasizetheimportanceofbe

190、ingcreativeandseekingchange.Inhiscitation,hereferredAmyas“她”.Sincetheinterpreterhadworkedthoroughlyontheprojectmaterial,shewasfamiliarwithnamesofIBMemployeesassignedineachorganization.Sowhensheheardthename“Amy”inthereport,shedidnotfeelstrangebutkeptthatinmind.So

191、metimesChineseexpressionisobscureandtargetaudiencemayhavedifficultyunderstandingthespecificmeaning.Eventhoughtheinterpretationisgrammaticallycorrect,failureofexplanationcanmaketheinformationfragmentary.Inthespeech,“Amy”wasreplacedby“她”.Theauthorthoughtthatifitwa

192、sonlyinterpretedinto“her”,Englishaudiencemayneedtimetofigureoutwhoitreferredto.Andsheconcernedthatnoteveryoneknewwho“Amy”referredto.Ininterpretation,theinterpretergatekepttheinformationbyclearlyexplainedwho“she”was,andfurtherexplainedwho“Amy”wassothatEnglishaudi

193、encecanassociateitwiththepeoplejustmentioned.Case4:S2:第四点呢,其实就是大家讲的,互联网加,大数据,以及我们一些其他的方面,其实在中国的,我们现在中国做国家战略,做我们社会组织发展战略也好,其实都是我们国家非常推崇,而且都是我们都非常向往的。只不过是我们真是不会干。那么,所以希望各位,不仅要这次做完,而且未来你们要多多支持,特别推动我们社会组织在大数据和互联网加的方面,我觉得是有很大的合作空间可以去做。I:Thelastpointisthatnowadayswear

194、etalkingaboutInternetplusandbigdata,butwearelackingofdevelopedtechnologyinthisfield.Inotherareas,suchasnationalstrategy,andorganizationstrategy,weareworkingonthatbutwearenotgoodatit.Therefore,Ihopeyouwillstillsupportusinthefuture,especiallyintheareaofbigdataandI

195、nternetplus,whereIthinkwecanachievealot.29nInhisforthobservation,thesecondspeakertalkedaboutweaknessinvolunteerservicedevelopmentinChina.HetalkedabouttheInternetPlus,andbigdata,thenheshiftedtothetopicthatwewerenotgoodatnationalstrategy.Itwasobviousthatsomeinfor

196、mationshouldberelatedtotheInternetplusandbigdatasothatthelogicrelationwascomplete.TheinterpreterbravelypredictedthattheInternetplusandbigdataparalleledwithnationalstrategyandorganizationstrategy.Thatistosay,theyweredifferentareasthatNGOswerelookingforwardtoimpro

197、ving.HencetheinterpreterdidnotrigidlyinterpretaccordingtotheoriginaltextbutsupplementedtheinformationtomakeintegratedlogicintheEnglishdiscourse.Itcanbenoticedthatwheninterpretergatekeepsambiguousinformation,he/sheshouldnotonlygatekeeptheinformationitselfbutalsot

198、helogicbehindtheinformation.Sometimestheinformationisorganizedinalogicalway,butaudiencemayhavedifficultyinfiguringoutwhatcertainwordsrefertoespeciallyforsomepronouns.Thatrequirestheinterpretertothoroughlymasterthetopicandtobemeticulousabouteachpieceoftheinformat

199、ion.Sometimesthelogicisfragmentarysothesentencesmakenosense.ThatrequirestheinterpretertobefamiliarwithChineseandwesternlogicandsensitiveaboutthedifferencesinbetween.(4)GatekeeperofIncorrectInformationCase5:S3:如果要把善意善行流传的更久,持续的更久的话,那更离不开我们专业的力量。所以,专业,是推动我们,无论是中国还

200、是特别是,虽然广东,是一个发达的城市,但对整个慈善来说,还是处于初步发展的阶段,所以说我们要更加崇尚专业的力量,引进专业的人才,来推动我们慈善的核心。I:Tokeepgoodwillingnessandgoodactionforlongertime,itcannotbeseparatedfromprofessionalism.AlthoughGuangzhouisarelativelydevelopedcity,inthevolunteerservicearea,wearejustbeginner.Sothereisa

201、lotofimprovementtobemadethroughprofessionalworkdonebyprofessionaltalents.Beinganinformationgatekeeperalsomeanspreventingwronginformation30nspreadingtothetargetlanguageaudience.Itisunderstandablethatthespeakermisspeakssomewordssuchasmixingcertainconcept.InChines

202、e,thereisonlyonedifferentpronunciationbetween“Guangdong”,theprovincename,and“Guangzhou”,theprovincialcitynameofGuangdong.However,thespeakermadeaslipofthetongue,taking“Guangdong”as“Guangzhou”.Theinterpreterassumedthatthespeakermadethismistakeunconsciouslysoshecor

203、recteditinthetargetlanguage.Inthissituation,theinterpretershouldbecautiousbecauseeveryonemakesmistakes.Oncethespeakermisspeakssomethingunintentionally,theinterpretershouldnotpointitoutdirectlywhichmayledtoawkwardness.Incase5,itwasapublicspeech,sotherewasnocondit

204、ionfortheinterpretertoconfirmwiththespeaker.Therefore,theinterpreterwassupposedtocorrectit.5.3.2Interpretersasconversationco-constructorsSometimes,inconsecutiveinterpreting,participantsareconsistingofthreeparties:speakersoflanguageA,speakersoflanguageB,andtheint

205、erpreter.Theinterpreterdirectlytalkstospeakersonbothsideswhiletwosidesofspeakersindirectlytalktoeachother.Inthisprocess,mostofinterpreter’sdiscoursecomesfromwhatspeakerssaid.However,itfrequentlyhappenswhenbothspeakersregardinterpretersascommunicationparticipants

206、,sointerpretersoftencontributehis/herownthoughtindelivery.Accordingtoauthor’sexperience,theclientsmaygiveabriefintroductionaboutthemeetingandalsoasksomequestionsabouttheinterpreter.Inthiskindofoccasion,interpretersaretreatedasconversationco-constructors.Thereaso

207、nwhytheinterpretercontributeshis/herowndiscourseisnotbecausetheinterpreterfailstounderstandorhearclearlyaboutwhatspeakerssay.Interpretershavetheirownvoiceexpressedtofacilitatethecommunication.Usually,interpreterwouldusethefirstpersonalpronoun.BeingConversationPa

208、rticipantCase6:31nJ:Goodafternoon,everyone.I:大家下午好。(观众微笑,译员转向发言人)I:Goodafternoon,Judit.Ithinkwecanstart.J:OK.Fornowyouhaveknownwhyperformanceisimportant.NowI’dliketobriefyouaboutwhatsettinggoalsareaboutandKellywillbeourinterpreter.IsthereanyoneofyouknowswhatisS

209、MART?I:刚才大家已经了解了绩效管理的重要性。接下来Judit会给大家介绍如何设立目标,由我来翻译。大家听过SMART这个概念吗?Theinterpreterbecameaconversationparticipantthroughfollowingaspects:firstly,aftertheinterpretersaidgoodafternoon,theaudiencerespondedwithsmile.Theinterpreterdidnotisolateherselffromtheoccasion,bu

210、tsalutedtothespeakerastherepresentativeofChinese.Secondly,thespeakerjoinedintheworkshopspontaneouslybysaying“wecanstart”tosavetime.Thirdly,itwasevidentthatthespeakerdidnotthinktheinterpreterwasinvisiblebutinvitedhertobeaparticipantofthespeechbyintroducinghertoau

211、dience.Dirikerbelievedthattheinterpreterhasrighttodecidewhohe/shecanrepresentwhenspeaking(2004:147).Inthissituation,iftheinterpreterstucktotheruleofinterpretingfromthefirst-personperspective,with“I”into“我”,whichalsomeant“me”inChinese,listenerswouldbeconfusedbyth

212、eownershipoftheutterance.Tokeeptheintroductionpartoftheinterpreter,sheshifteditintothethird-personperspective,interpreting“I”into“Judit”.Byplayingtheroleofconversationco-constructor,theinterpreterpushedforwardthedevelopmentofthespeech.Case7:S1:中国有一句俗语叫,行百里路半九十。其

213、实在我们十二位IBMCSC项目团队看来,我们的机构做的比较好了,但是我们自己,在座的一些,这个,同行会觉得,我们做的会不够,因为我们有很多很关键的东西,我们还要提高,这些提高的地方刚好就是我们IBMCSC项目的同事带给我们的。I:Itissaidthatinanone-hundredmilejourney,finishing90percentisnothingbutfinishingahalf,whichmeansthatthemoreyougettotheterminalpoint,themoreyoushouldp

214、utyoureffort.Itisusedtoremindpeoplenottogiveupwhenencounteredwithdifficulties.Actuallywedidagoodjobinthepast.32nHowever,IthinktherearemanyimprovementstobedoneinourworkandthatiswherealltheIBMteamcanbringusinourworkduringthepastmonth.Chinesepeopleprefercitedoldsa

215、yingstomaketheirexpressionconvincing.Incross-culturaloccasion,theinterpretershouldnotonlyinterprettheoriginaltext,butexplainthecontextbackgroundandpurposeofcitingitsothatforeignaudiencecanfullygraspthemeaning.Inthissituation,theinterpretertookownershipofherdisco

216、urse,becauseherutterancecamefromherownideabutnotfromthespeaker.Insteadofdwarfingthepositionofthespeaker,itistohelpimprovetargetaudience’sunderstanding.Itshouldbenoticedthattheintentionofassuminganyroleisleadingtosmoothcommunication.Thatshouldbebasedonhis/herrich

217、interpretingexperienceanddeepcomprehensionofthesituation.Interpretersshouldjudgewhentheyneedgeneratetheirownideainthedelivery;towhatkindofextenttheycanaddtheirthoughtintothetargetlanguage.However,thatdoesnotmeanthattheinterpreteristotallyfreeinexpressingopinions

218、whichwilldwarfthepositionofspeakers.Theinterpretershouldfulfillhis/herobligationbyconveyingthecompleteandaccurateinformationforclients.5.3.3InterpretersascommunicationcoordinatorsInmonolingualcommunicationoccasions,exchanging,interrupting,maintaining,givingupoft

219、urnsaresolelydecidedbytwosidesofspeakers.Inbilingualcontext,changesofturnsarecontrolledeitherbyspeakerorbytheinterpreterforhe/sheisequippedwithbilinguallanguagesandculturalbackground.Inthefieldinterpreting,eventhoughtheinterpreter’sspeechisnotownedbyhim/her,spea

220、kersaremorewillingtolookattheinterpreterratherthantheotherspeakerandalwaysgivetheirresponseaccordingtotheinterpreter’sperformance.Therefore,itisinterpreter’sresponsibilitytoadjusttheconversationdirectionespeciallytoavoidembarrassmentcausedbyculturalbarrier.Usual

221、ly,asthecommunicationcoordinator,interpreterachievesthisgoalthroughpassing,ignoring,acceptingandcreatingaturn.33n(1)CreateATurnCase8:J:SoIcollectedsomequestionsabout“SMART”or“notSMART”.I’dlikeyoutocheckonebyone,toseewhethertheyareSMART.Maybetheyarerelevant,butn

222、otattainable.I:我收集了关于SMART的一些案例。大家可以看一看,哪些是符合SMART的原则。有的可能具有相关性,但是没有实现性。J:So,firstone.Iwillgetbetteratmanagingmyprojects.I:第一个例子:我会更好的管理项目。I:这个目标有没有满足我们刚才的“SMART”原则?比如是否具体?有没有时效性?A:NoJ:Whynot?A:Whatis“better”?J:Whatdoyoumeanby“better”?Howtodefine“better”?I:“更好”是

223、什么意思呢?怎么才叫“更好”呢?Intheworkshop,afterexplaining“SMART”,rulestoobeywhensettinggoals,speakerJuditgaveaspecificexampletoseewhetheraudiencehadcomprehendedtheconcept.Shefirstlyreadtheexampleandstoppedformetointerpret.Atthattime,theworkshopprocessedintothefinalsession.L

224、istenerswereemployeesofSTARS,mostofwhomwerecollegestudents.Theauthorfoundthattheytendedtokeepsilentallthetime.Intheprevioussession,thespeakeralwaysencouragedthemtogiveanswers.Sometimetheinterpreterfeltsortofembarrassedwhennooneansweredquestionsbecauseitwasthespe

225、akerwhohadpatienceandtalkedalotwhile“learners”werereluctanttointeract.Therefore,whenthespeakerpaused,theinterpreternotonlyinterpretedtheexamplereadbythespeaker,butalsoturnedtotheaudienceand“asked”themhowdidthisonemeetthestandard,andassociateditwithtwoprinciples“

226、S”(specific)and“T”(timely)sothatlistenerswereenabledtogetthepointofthespeakerandthinkactively.(2)OfferATurnCase9:34nJ:Fornowyouhaveknownwhyperformanceisimportant.NowI’dliketobriefyouaboutwhatsettinggoalsabout.IsthereanyoneofyouknowswhatisSMART?I:刚才大家已经了解了绩效管理的重

227、要性。接下来我们来看如何设立一个合适的恰当的目标。首先,大家有没有谁听说过SMART这个设立目标的方法吗?大家听过SMART这个概念吗?(观众沉默,译员示意演讲者继续)J:No?Whocanexplainit?I:可以解释一下吗?J:Isthis….(一位观众举手)I:嗯,你说(译员看向观众)。A:设立一个具体的目标,然后进行工作,设立团队目标,以便对团队进行管理I:Itisawayofsettinggoalsfortheteam.J:Ok.Yes.SonowyouwillknowthemeaningsandIwill

228、givesomeexamplestoexplainthem.Asacommunicationcoordinator,theinterpreterdrivesthedevelopmentoftheconversationnotonlybyinterpretingonelanguageintotheothersothatpeoplespeakdifferentlanguagescanunderstandeachother.Theinterpreterplaysanindispensableroleinpushingforw

229、ardtheconversation.Inthiscase,thespeakerraisedaquestionandwaitedforsomeanswers.Inwesterncountries,peopleactivelyparticipateintheinteractionbetweenspeakersandaudience.SincethespeakerJuditcamefromHungary,shemightanticipatesomeonetobethevolunteer.However,peoplelike

230、tokeepquietwhentheyarenotrequiredtoanswerquestions.AstheonlypersonwhoarefamiliarwithbothChinesecultureandwesternculture,theauthorrealizedthataudiencewereshytoanswerorreluctanttoexpresstheirideawhentheywerenotsure.Toavoidwastingtime,theauthorpushedforwardthespeec

231、hbylookingbackfromaudiencetothespeakerandnoddedwithasmiletoremindthespeakertocontinue.Later,aftersheinterpreted“whocanexplainit?”,eventhoughshewasainterpreterandshewasnotsupposedtojoinedinthediscussion,shewasstilleagertofindsomeonecometo“help”,soshelookedtotheau

232、diencetoseewhethertherewasavolunteer.Whenshenoticedthatagirlraisedherhandasthespeakerstarted,theauthorencouragedherandsaid“justgoahead”,togivethegirlsomeconfidenceandpasstheturntoher.35nTheauthorpassedtheturntotheaudiencebyshowingherfacialexpressionandsayingsom

233、ewordstoher.Thesentence“justgoahead”wasnotarenditionofthespeaker,butitlikedcatalysttheacceleratedthediscussionprocess.36n6.CONCLUSIONInthischapter,theauthorconcludesfindingsofthisreport,answeringthreequestionsraisedinthefirstchapter.Afterreviewingthereport,thea

234、uthorpointsoutlimitationsandprovidesseveralsuggestionsfortheinterpretingpractitioners.6.1FindingsAftercarefullyreviewingthisinterpretingreport,theauthorfounddifferencesbetweeninterpretingpracticeandrealfieldinterpreting.Sheanalyzeshowtheinterpreterassumedthreero

235、lesininterpretingprocessandhowassumingrolesfacilitatesthecommunication.Theconclusionisdrawnasfollows:1)AnswertoQuestion1inChapterOne:Whatkindofrolescaninterpreterplayinconsecutiveinterpreting?Inthisreport,theinterpreterassumedthreeroles:aninformationgatekeeper,a

236、conversationco-constructerandacommunicationcoordinator.Theinterpretergatekeepstheinformationbyselectingandprocessinginformation.He/shefilterstheinappropriateinformation,adjustswaysofexpressiontomakethetargetlanguagemessagemeettheculturalspecification.Theinterpre

237、tershouldfullyunderstandthecontext,circumstance,andculturalbackgroundsothatmakewisejudgment.Theinterpreterworksasaconversationco-constructorbyplayingaconversationparticipantandhavingownperspectivesexpressed.Theinterpretershouldmakesurewhentheycanparticipateandho

238、wmuchoftheirownopinioncanbeaddedtothedelivery.Theinterpretercoordinatesthecommunicationbycreating,passing,interruptingandneglectingaturn,whichcanimmediatelyputtheconversationbacktotherightdirectionandsolveanticipatedcommunicativeproblems.2)AnswertoQuestion2inCha

239、pterOneHowdoplayingrolesinfluencetheconsecutiveinterpretingprocess?Inthefifthchapter,theauthorlistsninecasesofseventypesofsituationswheretheinterpreterassumedthreeroles.Theauthorillustratesandanalyzesthereasonsand37nimportanceofassumingthreeroles:theinterpreter

240、asthegate-keeper,theinterpreterastheconversationco-constructorandtheinterpreterasthecommunicationco-coordinator.Accordingtotheresponseandeffectatthesceneaswellasclients’feedback,itproducedapositiveeffectintheconsecutiveinterpreting.Itshouldbenoticedthattheinterp

241、reter’sbeingvisibledoesnotmeantheinterpretercanchangethewording,information,orwaysofexpressionathis/herwill.AccordingtoBrighenti(2007:331),“socialeffectsofvisibilitydependonwhoismorevisibleinwhichsite,andeffectofone’svisibilityfeedbackfromandtoeffectsinone’svisi

242、bility.”Itisimpossiblefortheinterpretertobeinvisibleintheinterpretingprocess,buttoomuchinterferencewillexertnegativeinfluenceonthecommunication.Itshouldbekeptinmindthattoconveytheinformationcompletelyandaccuratelyinthetargetlanguageremainsthetopresponsibilityfor

243、interpreters.3)AnswertoQuestion3inChapterOneWhyshouldtheinterpreterassumerolesintheconsecutiveinterpreting?Therealfieldinterpretingisacomplexanddynamicactivitywhichnotonlycallsforexcellentbilingualabilityfromtheinterpreter,butalsotheabilitytocopewiththeunexpecte

244、dsituations.Thelanguageabilityismerelytheprerequisiteoftheinterpretingserviceanditisthebasicrequirementfortheinterpreter.Inconsecutiveinterpretingprocess,mostofthespeakers’discourseisimpromptu,andsomeofwhichareredundant,incomplete,ambiguousandevenimpolite,sorigi

245、dlybeingsticktobeloyaloftheoriginaltextwouldgiverisetothefailureofthecommunication.Besides,theinterpreterneedbecomeaparticipanttohavehis/herownideaexpressed,orgetinvolvedintheconversationtoadjusttheconversationturn.Therefore,tobecompetentforaninterpretingtask,th

246、einterpretershouldplaycertainrolestoovercomeculturalbarriers,filtertheimproperinformation,addverbalornonverbalexpression,andadjustthedirectionofthedialoguesoastofacilitatethecommunication.38n6.2LimitationsThisreportonlydescribesthreerolesinterpreterplayedinthec

247、onsecutiveinterpreting.Mostoffindingsarebasedontheauthor’slimitedinterpretingexperience,thereforethefindingsmaynotfitallsituations.Moreover,theauthoronlystudiesthreerolessheplays:thegate-keeperoftheinformation,theconversationco-constructorandthecommunicationcoor

248、dinator.Itwouldbemorepersuasiveiftheauthorcanexploremoreroles.Sincethehallisspaciousandtherewasnoiseintheclosingceremony,therecordwasnotclearenoughtotranscripteachword.Theauthortriesherbesttorecallthedetailsinordertoreestablishthesceneinhermind.However,thevolume

249、ofsmallpartoftherecordwastoolowandtheauthorhadtoomitseverallittleparts.6.3SuggestionsforfuturepractitionersInterpretingisaworkthatcannotberepeatedorrehearsed.Onceitbegins,theinterpreterputsallconcentrationintointerpreting.Whenreviewingthetranscript,theinterprete

250、risallowedtoevaluateperformanceindetailandexploreinterestingareas.Beingvisibleisessentialtofacilitatethecommunication.Itnotonlyfreestheinterpreterfromtheslaveofthesourcelanguagebutalsocontributestothecommunication.However,thepremiseisbeingequippedwithproficientb

251、ilingualabilityandprofessionallymoralawareness.Practicemakesperfect,sotheinterpreterneedspendlargeamountoftimeinpracticingbeforetheycanfreelycontrolhis/herperformance.Therefore,theauthorthinksthatconductingrealfieldinterpretingisthebestwaytocheckthehowtheinterpr

252、eterseffectivelymasterthoseskillsandthusimproveinterpretingability.Hopefully,thesereportscanassistinterpretersininterpretingserviceinthefuture.39n40nREFRENCES[1]Anderson,R.&W.Bruce.2002.Perspectivesontheroleoftheinterpreters[A].InFranzPöchhacker&MiriamShelesin

253、ger(eds.)TheInterpretingStudiesReader[C].London&:Routledge.[2]Diriker,Ebru.2004.ContextualizingConferenceInterpreting:InterpretersintheIvoryTower?[M].Amsterdam:JohnBenjamin"sPublishingCompany.[3]Gentile,Aetal.1996.consecutiveInterpreting:AHandbook[M].Victor

254、ia:MelbourneUniversityPress.[4]Grice,H.P..1975.LogicandConversation[M].NewYork:AcademicPress.[5]Hymes,D.1972.OnCommunicativeCompetence[A].InJ.BPride&J.Holmes(eds.)Sociolinguistis:SelectedReadings[C].Harmondsworth:Penguin..[6]JonesR.2002.ConferenceInterpretingExp

255、lained[M].2nded.Mancheter:St.JeromePublishing.[7]Kurz,I.1989.Conferenceinterpreting:Usersexpectations[A].InD.Hammond(eds.).ComingofAge:Processofthe30thAnnualConferenceoftheAmericanTranslatorsAssociation[C].Medford:LearnedInformation.[8]Lefevere,AandBassnett,S.20

256、10.Translation,HistoryandCulture:ASourceBook[M].Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress.[9]Munday,Jeremy.2010.IntroducingTranslationStudies:TheoriesandApplications[M].Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress.[10]Pöchhacker,F.2009.IntroducingTranslat

257、ionStudies[M].Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress.[10]Roy,C.1989.ASociolinguisticAnalysisoftheInterpreter’sRoleintheTurnExchangesofanInterpretedEvent[D].Washington,DC:GeorgetownUniversity.Roy,C.B.2000.InterpretingasaDiscourseProcess[M].OxfordUniversit

258、yPress.[11]Venuti,L.1995.TheTranslator’sInvisibility:AHistoryofTranslation[M].LondonandNewYork:Routledge.41n[12]Wadensjo,Cecilia.1998.InterpretingasInteraction[M].LondonandNewYork:Longman.[13]戴慧萍,曹嬿.2014.国际组织中的职业译员——对布莱恩·福克斯和安妮·拉费贝尔的访谈[J].上海翻译(2):88-92.[14]段峰.2

259、008.文化视野下文学翻译主体性研究[M].成都:四川大学出版社.[15]刘娟.2011.从译员的主体性意识看商务谈判口译过程中译员的立场及口译策略[J].科技视界(5):197-200.[16]莫爱屏.2010.口译中译员主体性意识的语用研究[J].中国外语(3):103-111.[17]任文.2010.联络口译过程中译员的主体性意识研究[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社.[18]詹成.2013.政治场域中口译员的调控角色[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社.42nAPPENDICEAPPENDIXAWorkshop

260、Transcription工作坊时间:2016年5月10日工作坊地点:广州满天星公益青少年发展中心参与人员:演讲者Judit(以下简称J)听众满天星员工(以下简称A)译员(以下简称I)工作坊内容:Judit:Goodafternoon,everyone.I:大家下午好。(观众微笑,译员转向发言人)I:Goodafternoon,Judit.Ithinkwecanstart.J:OK.Fornowyouhaveknownwhyperformanceisimportant.NowI’dliketobriefyouabout

261、whatsettinggoalsareaboutandKellywillbeourinterpreter.IsthereanyoneofyouknowswhatisSMART?I:刚才大家已经了解了绩效管理的重要性。接下来Judit会给大家介绍如何设立目标,由我来翻译。大家听过SMART这个概念吗?(观众沉默,译员示意演讲者继续)J:No?Whocanexplainit?I:可以解释一下吗?(一位观众举手)I:嗯,你说。A:设立一个具体的目标,然后进行工作,设立团队目标,以便对团队进行管理I:Itisawayofset

262、tinggoalsfortheteam.J:Ok.Yes.SonowyouwillknowthemeaningsandIwillgivesomeexamplestoexplainthem.I:下面我们就来逐字分析SMART分别都代表什么含义,Judit会给大家举几个例子来解释。J:So,firstofall.The“s”,means“specific”.Whenyousetthe“smart”goals,ithastobethegoalthatanswerswhat,why,who,where,andhow.Yoush

263、ouldavoidanylanguagethatcanbeambiguousoropenforinterpretation.I:首先“S”呢,意思是设定的目标一定要具体,有针对性。设定目标时要包括的内容有:这个目标是什么,为什么设立这个目标,谁来实现,在哪实现,以及如何实现。不能使用任何宽泛的,模糊的语言,要让别人知道你在说什么。J:Hereistheexample:mygoalistobuildaworldwebsite.Whatdoyouthink?Isitspecificornot?I:我们举个例子。我说我的目标

264、是设立一个世界级的网站。大家对这个目标有什么看法?J:Doesitanswerwhat,why,where,who,andhow?I:这个目标有没有回答她上面提出的那几个问题?这个目标是什么,为什么设立,43n什么人来完成,等等。(观众摇头)J:No,whynot?Isitopentointerpretation?I:这个问题有什么需要解释的地方?比如,大家知道“世界网站”的含义吗?什么是“世界网站”?A:太宽泛了。I:Itistoogenerous.J:Ok.Yes.Nowweareonlyaskingaboutt

265、he“specific”.So,ok.Timeisimportant.Veryshorttime.IfIsayIwillbuildaworldwebsite,theworkdonebeforebuildthewebsite,howdoyoudefinetheworldwebsite?It’shardtodo,right?Like3millionpeoplevisititeveryday?whatshouldbeincludedinthewebsite?Howdoyouevaluateyourgoalsandkeepon

266、that?So,whatareotherbetteroptions?I:假设我想建立一个世界级的网站,那么,什么样的网站才叫世界级的呢?你需要有几百万的浏览量?你的网站需要包含什么样的信息才叫世界级的网站?所以这个目标设立的就很模糊,很难衡量。那如果要改进这个目标的话,大家有什么意见?可以改进哪些方面使得目标更加清晰一点?J:Sohaveyoudecidehowdoyouvaluetheword,like“world”?I:所以我们要注意选词,比如说想,“世界级”这个词,我们可以加一些什么限定词把它明确一下?A:就是要

267、针对它的使用者,用户范围有一个限定。I:Itshouldgivearangefortheuserofthewebsite.J:Yes.Like,mygoalistobuildawebsitethatwillattract2millionor5millionusersbythisyear.Afterthis,Icanevaluatemyperformanceorgoal.CanIreachmygoal?I:如果我想设置一个网站,在今年达到200万的浏览量。如果我设置这样目标,200万的浏览量,那么在今年年底的时候,我们就

268、可以看出这个目标有没有实现。这样的话就有一个衡量的标准。J:Soisthereanyquestionaboutthispart?I:对这一部分大家有问题吗?A:NoJ:So,thenextoneis“measurable”.Youshouldestablishconcretecriteriaformeasuringprogresstowardtheattainmentofeachgoalyouset.Sobasically,usingnumbersalwayshelpyouinsettingthegoal.I:第二个呢

269、,“measurable”,在完成目标的每一个过程中都设定切实的衡量标准。使用数据通常都能给我们很大的帮助。像我们刚才设定了“200万”这个目标,在每一个阶段通过看数据来了解目标完成的程度。J:Hereisanexample:Iwillworkonmanyprojects”-isitMeasurable?I:如果我说我的目标是要完成很多项目。这个目标可以衡量吗?J:Howdoyouresetthegoalandmakeitmeasurable?怎样把这个目标重新设定让它可以衡量呢?A:我这个月要完成2个项目。I:Iwi

270、llworkon2programsthismonth.J:Yes.Thatismeasurable.Iwillworkon2programsthismonth.Afterthismonth,IwillbeabletovaluewhetherIhavereachedmygoal.I:对的。比如说我的目标是这个月要完成2个项目。那么这样的话,从现在起,44n一个月之后看我们有没有完成2个项目,从而评判有没有完成目标。J:Thegoalsyousetforyourselfmustbeattainable,whichmean

271、sgoalsshouldbeastretchandwithinreach.Soitshouldbenottooeasybutalsosomethingyouhavetofightforit,youhavetoworkhardtoachieveit.Yetnotextreme.Becarefulnottomakeyourgoaltooattainable.I:第三点呢是说设立的目标要是可实现的。既不是太简单,轻而易举就能获得的,也不是怎么努力都得不到的,不符合实际的。就是我们说的“跳一跳,摘葡萄”那种感觉。你要做一番努力

272、才能实现。J:Forexample:”Mygoalistobuildalibrarythisyear”-isitAttainableorisittooattainable?I:如果说我的目标是今年建一个图书馆,那么大家觉得这个目标是一个可实现的目标吗?J:Orthisyear,theStarshasbuilt8libraries,andIsetmygoalthatitwillbuild1librarynextyear.Isitattainable?I:比如说满天星今年建了8个图书馆,那我明年的目标是建1个图书馆,这个目

273、标可实现吗?J:Isittooattainable?I:这个目标是不是太容易实现了J:Anyquestion?I:有问题吗?J:Okthenextoneis“relevant”.Thegoalyousethastoalignwithcompanyanddepartmentobjectives.So,forexample:ifyousetyourgoallikeWriteoneblogpostamonth”-isitRelevantforyourpositionornot?Maybeitisspecific,mayiti

274、smeasurable,orattainable.But,isitrelevanttoyourjob?I:第四点叫相关性。也就是说我们设定的目标要与我们的本职工作有关联。比如说,我的目标是每个月要发表一篇博客文章。虽然说这个目标是具体的,也可以衡量,或许也是可以实现的目标,但是重要的一点是这个目标和你的本职工作有关系吗,如果没有的话也不是一个好的目标。J:Forthis,youhavetoknowwhatisyourjobabout,whatisthegoalforyourcompany,anddepartment.L

275、ikeStars,youhavetomakeitrelevant.I:所以我们设立目标的时候要知道自己的工作是什么,部门和公司的工作目标是什么。像我们满天星公益的目标是什么,你的个人目标要有相关性。J:Next,the“T”in”SMART”means“timely”.Youhavetosetthegoalgroundedwithinatimeframe.Youhavetosetdeadlines!I:“T”代表时效性。就是说设定了目标之后,要有一个完成目标的期限,在哪个时间点完成目标。J:Forexample:Iwi

276、llgivetrainingtoanintern”–isthisaTimelygoal?I:比如说我要培训实习生。这是一个有时效性的目标吗?J:Howdoyouresetthegoal?I:如何改进这个目标呢?A:比如说在实习生入职一个月内给他们培训。I:Likewecangivetrainingtoaninternwithinonemonthaftertheygetemployed.J:Soifyousetatimeframeforthegoal,whenthedeadlineiscloser,youcanevalu

277、atehowmuchyouhaveachievedforthatgoal.Alwaysrememberthat“specific”,45n“measurable”,“attainable”,“relevant”and“timely”shouldbeincludedinyourgoal.I:所以如果我们给目标设定了截止日期,当最终期限一天天接近的时候,你可以看看你离实现目标还差多远。所以就是在你设定的目标当中,具体性,可衡量性,可实现性,相关性以及时效性这几点都应当包括进去。J:SoIcollectedsomeques

278、tionsabout“SMART”or“notSMART”.I’dlikeyoutocheckonebyone,toseewhethertheyareSMART.Maybetheyarerelevant,butnotattainable.I:我收集了关于SMART的一些案例。大家可以看一看,哪些是符合SMART的原则。有的可能具有相关性,但是没有实现性。J:So,fisrtone.Iwillgetbetteratmanagingmyprojects.I:第一个例子:我会更好的管理项目。这个目标有没有满足我们刚才的“SM

279、ART”原则?比如是否具体?有没有时效性?A:NoJ:Whynot?A:Whatis“better”?J:Whatdoyoumeanby“better”?Howtodefine“better”?I:“更好”是什么意思呢?怎么才叫“更好”呢?J:Isitmeasurable?I:这个目标可以衡量吗?做到多好才算是“更好”呢?J:Isitattainable?Isitrelevant?I:这个目标是可以实现的吗?相关性呢?J:Yes,forsomeonewhodealingwiththemanagement,it’srel

280、evant.Right?I:如果你是做项目管理的,那个这目标就是和你的本质工作相关,对吧?J:Isistimely?I:时效性呢?A:Notimelimits.J:Right.J:Hereisanexample.IsitaSMARTgoal?Howtoresetthegoal?I:这里有一个改进的例子。这个目标符合SMART原则吗?或者大家还有什么改进的想法?A:Iworkonthedonationmanaging.Ineedtoincreasethedonationby300eachmonth.Andbytheend

281、oftheyear,Ineedtoincreasethedonoreachmonth.Bytheendoftheyear,Iwillincrease200donors.I:我做的是捐赠管理。我的工作目标是每个月增加300元的捐赠款额。我也要增加捐赠人的数量,今年年底要增加200位捐赠人。J:Yes,verygood.Youhavetimeframe,right?Monthandyear.Youhavemeasurement.Youhavetheamountofmoney.SothisisaverySMARTgoal.I

282、:很好。你有时间的限制,月份和年度。也有衡量标准,设定了捐赠数额。这是个典型的SMART目标。J:ThesecondexampleisIwillrecruit200volunteersforthesummercampbytheendofApril2016.IsitSMART?I:第二个例子是我计划在2016年4月底招募200名志愿者。这个目标符合SMART标准吗?A1:IthinkitisaSMARTgoalbecauseitismeasurable.Youhaveagoalofrecruiting46n200vol

283、unteers,andalsoitistimely.IthasdeadlinewhichisbytheendofApril2016.Itisattainablebecauseaccordingtoourrecruitmentplan,itcanbeachieved.I:我觉得这是一个SMART目标因为首先它可以衡量,设定了目标是招募200个志愿者,也有时效性,有截止日期2016年4月。也可以实现,因为根据以前的招募计划,这个目标是可以实现的。A2:WhileIdon’tthinkitisattainable.Maybe

284、200volunteersarenotgoodenough.Sothegoalcanbe“Iwillrecruit200volunteersfrom600candidates”.I:我觉得在可实现这方面有点问题。因为这200个志愿者不够优秀。所以可以把目标改为,从600个候选人中选择200个符合要求的志愿者。J:Good.Sothethirdexample:Iwillhelpwithmanagingalibrarythisyear.Howdoyouthink?IsitSMART?I:第三个例子是今年我会加强图书馆项目的

285、管理。大家对这个目标怎么看?J:Isitspecific?Whynot?Whichpartisnotspecific?I:这个目标具体吗?那部分不具体,可以改进呢?A:没有说是哪个图书馆。I:Wedon’tknowthelocationofthelibrary.J:Youwanttosaywhichlibraryitis.Ok.Whatelse?Doyouknowwhatis,howtodefine“help”?I:比如说要加强图书馆的管理。“加强”怎么定义?J:likeIwillcleanthelibrary?I:比

286、如说,通过打扫卫生加强吗?A:我觉得加强的话,要指出比如想要增加多少的读者在这个图书馆中,还有就是要增加多少志愿者的来服务。I:Ithinkasforthereaders’part,itshouldpointedouthowmanyreadersyouwanttoincreaseandasforthevolunteers’part,whatotherservicewillbeprovided.J:Yes.Weshouldsetthegoalbasedontheexperience.I:我们应该根据工作经验,设定目标,比

287、如具体人数等等。J:Also,IwillorderhundredsofbooksforthislibrarybytheendofMayorJune.Thathelpsmakethegoalspecific.在做图书馆项目管理时我们还可以提出具体目标,今年,哪个月要购进多少本书,有具体的数目,来有一个衡量的标准。J:ok.47nAPPENDIXBClosingCeremonyTranscription闭幕式时间:2016年5月15日闭幕式地点:广州北京路少年宫参与人员:三位评委(以下简称S)十二位IBM员工满天星公益(

288、以下简称Stars)广州志愿驿站联合会(以下简称GVSA)启创社会工作服务中心(以下简称QiChuang)广州残疾者英语培训中心(以下简称GETCH)闭幕式内容:S1:我记得上次见面的时候还是下雨天。过了一个月,这里已经是天气比较好了。上一次还是比较,有一点凉,今天已经很温暖,而且很闷热了。但是因为是我们12位的同行带给我们的晴朗和温暖。I:Irememberthatlasttimewemetamonthago,itwasrainingandcool.Today,it’ssunny.Ithinkthatitisallo

289、ftheIBMteambringsuswarmandsunnydays.(掌声)S1:中国有一句俗语叫,行百里路半九十。其实在我们十二位IBMCSC项目团队看来,我们的机构做的比较好了,但是我们自己,在座的一些,这个,同行会觉得,我们做的会不够,因为我们有很多很关键的东西,我们还要提高,这些提高的地方刚好就是我们IBMCSC项目的同事带给我们的。I:Itissaidthatinaone-hundredmilejourney,finishing90percentisnothingbutfinishingahalf,whi

290、chmeansthatthemoreyougettotheterminalpoint,themoreyoushouldputyoureffort.Itisusedtoremindpeoplenottogiveupwhenencounteredwithdifficulties.Actuallywedidagoodjobinthepast.However,IthinktherearemanyimprovementstobedoneinourworkandthatiswherealltheIBMteamcanbringusi

291、nourworkduringthepastmonth.S1:上两个团队汇报的内容对我来说,在听的时候是有挺大挑战的,因为里面有很多的概念很多的内容,我有听过,我有接触过,但是我用的不是很好,用的不是很熟。我的这个感受其实也是我们在机构里面工作的其他同事们,差不多有这样一个感受,听完之后我想我们也会有这样一个感觉。虽然我们的习惯不一样,我们的风格不一样,但是我们的目标和我们需要的东西是一样的。I:Inthereportofferedjustnow,actuallytherearesomeconceptsthatIhave

292、heardaboutbutI’mnotfamiliarwith,soIcan’tapplythemtoworkverywell.ButIthinkweareworkingforthesamegoalsdespitethedifferencesinhabitandculture.S1:就像启创一样,他们说他们想通过公益影响家庭,进而影响一个人的成长和发展,这样一种理念。其实我们广州的一些公益机构,直接服务的机构,都有这样一个理念,希望通过我们自己去影响别人,再通过别人,去影响全社会。这样的理念,它能够实现是需要很多很专业

293、的知识,所以我们今天看到我们两个团队,有很多结构化的设计,可以优化这些用户体验,怎么用好这些工作技巧和方法,这些方法确实是IBMCSC团队的长处,也是我们广州这些团队的短处,所以很荣幸这次可以互相促进互相补充,我觉得这样的成就,这样的合作很有成果,这也是目前我们非常需要的阶段。I:AsQichuangmentioned,theywanttobydoingcharityactivitiestoinfluencemore48nfamiliessoastoinfluenceindividual’sdevelopment.I

294、thinkthatiswhatotherNGOsinGuangzhouwanttodo.AlthoughwehavesomeweaknessintheseareasthatiswhatIBMteamcanhelp.ItisagoodopportunityforIBMtouseyouradvantagestohelpusmakeimprovementinourwork.Thisissignificant.S1:我有一个比较乐观的观点,也有一个不是那么乐观的观点。乐观的观点就是,我觉得,虽然我们来自不同的国家,我们来自不同

295、的行业,但是,只是一个月短暂的时间,我们应该是能够成为一辈子的朋友。而且我觉得广州的这个生活,应该会让大家感觉到,广州真的是非常的漂亮,也让大家感觉到很舒服,你们应该会对广州有一个比较好的印象。这是我觉得很乐观的一方面。我觉得没那么乐观的方面呢,是我觉得,我们这些传递给,交给团队的这些方法呢,现在我们教会了,但是我们不见得马上就能用的好,所以我觉得我们这种交流应该是长期的,而且我觉得我们这种项目我们以后可以变得更多一点,更频繁一点。因为我觉得这些帮助是长期的,这是觉得没那么乐观的,但是我觉得是有必要的一方面。I:One

296、thingIfeeloptimisticisthatwecomefromdifferentcountriesanddifferentindustry.Weonlyworktogetherforonemonthbutwecanbecomelifetimefriends.AlsoGuangzhouissuchabeautifulcityandihopeGuangzhouleavesyouaverygoodimpression.Thethingidon’tfeeloptimisticisthatyouhavebroughty

297、ourapproachtoimproveourwork,butIthinktheresultscan’tbeseenimmediately.Maybewewillmeetsomechallengesanddifficultiesinthefuture.Sowehopewecanhavealongterncooperationwitheachother.S1:很感谢上两个团队带给我们的展示,接下来还有两个团队,我会继续去认真听,认真学,最后我像用我们广州志愿者总队的一句口号来总结,叫,怎么说:together,wecan

298、bebetter.一起来,更精彩。谢谢大家。Thankyouforyourpresentation.AndinthefollowingpartIwillfocusonyourPPT.Andwecanciteonemottooftheorganization,thatis,together,wecanbebetter.Thankyou!S2:好久没有这么受鼓舞的,而且是很感动来参加一个志愿者的party也好,或者是一个晚会也好。I:IthasbeenalongtimesinceIparticipatedsuchafrui

299、tfulpartylasttime.S2:感触还是比较多的,我想表达这么几个想法。第一个想法的话,刚才听了我们四组的分享,其实IBM来到中国,对IBM整个项目,还是比较了解,但是还是超出了我的预期。IBM的项目,我们一直担心,我们只是在战略层面而不能落地。那么我们的四个项目,基本上除了在战略高度上,而且从具体的项目落地,包括培训,模型,都能给我们中国很多的社会组织提供大量的帮助。这是让我非常吃惊,而且是非常令我鼓舞的。I:Igotalottosharewithyou.Firstly,IamfamiliarwithIBM

300、programbutIamconcernedthatthemethodscannotbeappliedintopracticeverywell.However,theachievementyouhavemadeisoutofmyexpectation.IBMteamsdidagreatfavorinthisprogram.S2:我是特别相信,志愿可以推动我们中国整个社会组织的发展。IBM给了我们一个完美的展示。我想经过我们今天的四组展示,包括今天我们主管呢有志愿者指导中心的负责人,也有广州慈善的负责人。我想我们今后这种

301、IBMCSC模式,这种专业服务的模式可以在中国得到更大的推广和应用。49nI:IdeeplybelievethatvolunteerservicecanpromotethedevelopmentofNGOs.Thefruitfulworkyouhaveofferedhasgreatlyhelpedusindealingwiththechallenges.Ihopethatcanbeappliedinanationwidelevel.S2:第二点呢就是,中国的专业志愿服务,经过我们的调研,企业志愿服务,大约在17个百分

302、点,在做专业志愿服务,那这个相对全球,或者世界发达经济体来说,我们的发展空间还是比较大的。希望IBM在中国的,当然包括全球的志愿伙伴中,可以把你们先进的理念,可以在中国的更多的地方呢,可以指导我们当地的更多企业,包括社会组织来参与我们这个项目。I:Secondly,thereisonly17percentofcooperationinChinaofferthiskindofvolunteerservicesforNGOsandwecanseethereisgreatimprovementinthisarea.SoIho

303、peIBMteamcangiveyourhelporguidancetomoreNGO.S2:第三点呢我想表达的就是,我刚才听到我们四个机构的介绍,我听了以后,我是觉得时间比较短,包括你们刚才讲的绩效体系,志愿者管理体系,包括你们刚才讲的很多内容,我觉得应该把成果公开给更多的社会组织,因为我们相信在中国的这么多社会组织中,能做到成功的所谓的绩效体系和志愿服务体系的,应该是不多的。所以说如果我们把他们makeithappen,甚至做成一个大创新的话,我觉得对于推动中国的社会主义发展和志愿发展,都是一个非常重要的内容。I:

304、Ithinkthatjustnow,youhavegivenyourworkingresultsinalimitedtime.TheresutlsshouldbeopenedtomoreNGOinordertocontributetothevolunteerservicesinwholecountry.S2:第四点呢,其实就是大家讲的,互联网加,大数据,以及我们一些其他的方面,其实在中国的,我们现在中国做国家战略,做我们社会组织发展战略也好,其实都是我们国家非常推崇,而且都是我们都非常向往的。只不过是我们真是不会干。那

305、么,所以希望各位,不仅要这次做完,而且未来你们要多多支持,特别推动我们社会组织在大数据和互联网加的方面,我觉得是有很大的合作空间可以去做。I:ThelastpointisthatnowadayswearetalkingaboutInternetplusandbigdata,butwearelackingofdevelopedtechnologyinthisfield.Inotherareas,suchasstatestrategy,organizationstrategy,weareworkingonthatbutwe

306、arenotgoodatit.Therefore,Ihopeyouwillstillsupportusinthefuture,especiallyintheareaofbigdataandInternetplus,whereIthinkwecanachievealot.S2:OK,最后再次表达对IBM全球团队最真诚的感谢,跟IBM合作比较愉快,证明我们选择合作伙伴也是比较有眼光的。所以大家的合作希望可以推动IBM这种模式在中国可以发扬光大。感谢各位!I:Inthelast,Iwouldliketoextentmysin

307、cerethankstoalltheIBMteamsandIappreciateyourworkhere.HopefullywecanpromotetheIBMModelhereinChina.Thankyou!S3:也谈不上点评。听了一下确实很受鼓舞也很受感动。这四个组织对我来说都很熟悉,如果真的要点评的话,我觉得就一个字,棒!无论是我们四个志愿者组织,还是IBM全球志愿者团队,我觉得都是很棒的。但是我想,更棒的应该是我们四个组织。在坐的我们都是广州的,都是比较,很棒的慈善机构,有几个组织还跟我有合作过,他们的很多的

308、一些理念,他们的行为,无论对慈善机构的发展,还是对广州所有慈善机构的引领,都是具有很大意义的。所以我想,今天IBM50n全球的志愿行动,能够找到这四个组织也是很独具眼光的。I:Thankyouforbeinghere.Ihaveseenallyourworkingresults.IfIgiveacommenttoyourjob,IthinkbothIBMandNGOinGuangzhouhavedoneaverygoodjobduringlastmonth.ActuallyIamfamiliarwiththefour

309、NGOinGuangzhouandIhavesomecooperationwiththem.TheyhavedoneagreatjobinpromotingthevolunteerserviceinGuangzhou.IthinkIBMhaschosenverygoodpartners.S3:充分说明我没有站在全球的视野上,所以刚才说话太快了一点,还是在广州本土的说话这种模式,不好意思。我想有三点我特别有感受的。第一点,我觉得这个活动抓住了一个慈善的核心。大家都知道这个慈善法刚颁布,而且有专门的一章叫慈善服务。I:Iw

310、ouldliketosharewithyouthreeobservationsaboutthismeeting.Firstly,thisactivityischaritythemed.WeknowthatthereisanewcharitylawinChinaandthereischaptercalledcharityservice.S3:志愿服务是慈善服务里面最核心的。我们以前国内很多就把慈善当捐钱,捐物啊,这种传统的理解。那么新的慈善法出台以后,我相信很多人会把志愿服务当做慈善的最重要的领域。I:Thevolunt

311、eerserviceisoneofthemostimportantelementinthecharity.Inthepast,peoplethinkonlydonationcanberegardedascharityactivity.Nowwehavecharitylaw,Ithinkmorepeoplewillregardvolunteerserviceascharityactivity.S3:所以就我个人理解,这个慈善使命里面的意义有一个,有专门的一句话叫,慈善就是为了公共利益的志愿行动。这有从这个角度,我觉得这个

312、项目,抓住了慈善的核心。I:Accordingtomyunderstanding,charityisforthepublicwelfare.SoIthinktheprogramduringthismonthhassticktothecoreofthecharity.S3:这是我的第一点感触。第二点,我觉得抓住了社会创新的原动力。I:Thatismyfirstobservation.Secondly,thisprogramhasshownthemotiveofthesociety.S3:为什么有这么多人从事志愿服务,我想

313、最根本的一点是他们都是为了一个美好的社会,大家才会行动。I:Thereasonwhytherearesomanypeopledevotedthemselvestothevolunteerserviceisthattheywanttohaveabettersocietyandabetterworld.S3:所以刚才当我听到志愿者最后一个项目,志愿驿站的项目,包括最后那个同事的分享,就是为什么有那么多好奇,并不是因为她仅仅好奇而已,而是试图想去改变,而改变很重要。I:Inthelastpresentation,oneoft

314、heIBMstaffsaidshewascuriousabouteverything.Thisisnotonlyaboutcuriosity.Thisshowsthatshewantstothinkofaninnovativeideatomakeachangeinthework.S3:通过我个人感受,我相信我们四个机构,你们最大的收获有一点,就是知道,世上有很多事情,是可以换一个角度,换一种思维,有另外一种可能,可以去实现的,更美好的目标。I:IbelievealloftheNGOmemberswillagreewit

315、hmethatwecanthinkof,orsolveaprobleminadifferentperspective.Insuchaway,wewillhaveabettersolutionandbetterresults.S3:所以我希望你们能把这种理念,这种创新的想法,以及对未来改变的可能性,51n这种的,大胆,好奇,都继续的把它传承下去,而且带给身边的人。I:SoIhopeallofuscankeepinnovativeandcuriousabouteverythingaroudus,passthisideat

316、othegeneration.S3:第三个感受我想说的是,专业的力量。I:Mythirdobservationisaboutthepowerofprofessionalism.S3:IBM全球志愿行动它不仅仅是一个简单的志愿行动,事实上,是用智慧的力量,用专业的力量,来提升我们社会组织,慈善组织的,不论是规模管理啊,战略规划啊,未来发展啊,愿景啊,应该说它是一种用专业的力量推动的。I:TheworkdoneherebyIBMisnotonlyaboutvolunteerservicebutalsoprofessiona

317、lservicetohelpusmakeimprovementinmanagement,strategy,futuredevelopmentandsoon.S3:无论是公益还是慈善,我想,有三个词语是比较重要的。第一个是善意,第二个是善行,第三个是持续。I:Nomatteritisavolunteerserviceorphilanthropicactivity,Ithinktherearethreekeyelements.Thefirstistoshowyourgoodwillingness,thesecondisto

318、havegoodactionandthethirdistobecontinuous.S3:这三个都离不开专业的精神。I:Allofthemcannotbeseparatedfromprofessionalism.S3:首先善意。我们要激发一种怎么样的善意,是需要对社会有一个专业的判断。I:Firstly,weshouldshowthegoodwillingnesstothesociety.Weneedaprofessionaljudgmentaboutthesociety.S3:善行,是我们怎么样用专业的精神,专业的力

319、量,去把这种慈善,把它实践好。I:Goodactionmeansweshouldapplytheprofessionalknowledgeappropriatelytohelpthesociety.S3:如果要把善意善行流传的更久,持续的更久的话,那更离不开我们专业的力量。所以,专业,是推动我们,无论是中国还是特别是,虽然广东,是一个发达的城市,但对整个慈善来说,还是处于初步发展的阶段,所以说我们要更加崇尚专业的力量,引进专业的人才,来推动我们慈善的核心。I:Tokeepgoodwillingnessandgoodac

320、tionforlongertime,itcannotbeseparatedfromprofessionalism.AlthoughGuangzhouisarelativelydevelopedcity,inthevolunteerservicearea,wearejustbeginner.Sothereisalotofimprovementtobemadethroughprofessionalworkdonebyprofessionaltalents.S3:所以我们广州民政局最近刚刚发布了一个品牌设计和建设的实施方案,

321、I:ThereisnewplanaboutbranddesigninitiatedbyGuangzhougovernment,S3:其中有一项最重要的就是,怎么样用专业的力量来重新塑造我们的社会组织,I:OneoftheitemsisabouthowtouseprofessionalknowledgetorebuildNGOinGuangzhou.S3:所以我今天很大的感触就是,这个CSC计划,IBM全球的志愿行动,对我来说,无论是今后的志愿工作,应该是很有借鉴的意义,我特别感谢大家。I:Alltheworkdoneb

322、yIBMheregivesmealotofinspirationformyworkinthefuture.Thankyouall!52

你可能关注的文档
关闭