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    高中英语二轮复习时态和语态

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    高中英语二轮复习时态和语态

    语法专项复习学案语法专项复习学案 五五 动词的时态和语态动词的时态和语态 一 基本用法 1 一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. ②表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时 see、hear、smell、taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如 I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. ③在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状语从 句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿”,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased. 如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。 ④少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、end、stop 等常用一般现 在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先 安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。 The shop closes at 1100 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. 2 一般过去时的考点分析(考核重点) 。 ①一般过去时的基本用法表示过去的事情、动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连 用(或有上下文语境暗示) ;用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望 的事通常用过去式。如 I met her in the street yesterday. They never drank wine. I thought the film would be interesting, but it isn’t. ②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语,尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生,但从句中的谓语 动词连用过去式。如 He told me he read an interesting novel last night. ③表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. 3 一般将来时考点分析。 ①表示未来的动作或状态常用 will / shall 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如 tomorrow、next week 等) 。 ②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We’ll die without air or water. ③表示趋向行为的动词如 come、go、start、begin、leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将来 时。 ④be going to 与 will / shall, be to do, be about to do 用法及区别 be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做 了某种准备;shall / will do 表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。如 If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.正确 If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.错误 be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 300 o’clock this afternoon. be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. 4 现在进行时考点分析。 ①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时;表近期特定 的安排或计划;go、come 等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如 It is raining now. We are leaving on Friday. He is teaching English and learning Chinese. The girl is always talking loud in public.与 always、often 等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行 动或某种感情色彩 ②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 (A)表示心理状态、情感的动作like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。 (B)表存在的状态的动词appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。 (C)表示一时性动作的动词allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。 (D)表示感官的动词see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。 5 过去完成时考点分析(考核重点) 。 ①常用过去完成时的几种情况 (A)在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或 从句以前发生的动作。如By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. B表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ though / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即hoped / planned to have done。 (C) “时间名词 before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 ago”在 句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. (D)表示“一就”的几个句型 Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had 主语 过去分词 when / than / before 一般过去时。 如We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. ②在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。 After he hadleft the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. 6 过去将来时考点分析。 参照一般将来时对比用 would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来; come、go、leave 等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和 was / were about to do sth.表过去将来。 7 过去进行时考点分析。 ①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 ②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中。 8 现在完成时考点分析。 ①现在完成时除可以和 for、since 引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用 during / in /over the lastpastfew years months, weeks、in recent years、up to now、till now 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is has been 一段时间 since 从句 ThisThat / Itis the firstsecondtime that 现在完成时 ③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如 Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. 二二 注意几组时态的区别注意几组时态的区别 1 一般过去时与现在完成时时间上有差异凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成 时态,如含有 ago、last year、just now、the other day 等。 结果上有差异现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继 续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。 2 过去完成时与一般过去时过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几 个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。 3 一般现在时和现在进行时 一般现在时表示习惯性得行为或状态或客观性东西;而现在进行时表示短暂时间内的状态。 He works in the office ,but he is working in the workshop this week. 他在办公室工作,但这一周他下车间了。 4 现在完成时和现在完成进行时 1)现在完成时强调过去发生的动作现在已经完成或表示曾经发生过。 现在完成进行时一般强调过去发生的动作现在仍在继续。 I have been writing an article .仍在写 I have wtitten an article .(已经完成) 三三 与动词时态连用的句式与动词时态连用的句式 1)This/It is the first /second time that 从句 2)be doing when be about to do when /be on the point of doing when had just done when 3 Hardly had done when / No sooner had done than 4It is has been 一段时间 since 从句 5)It be 一段时间before 从句这种句式分为两种情况如果主句用将来时,则从句用一般 现在时表将来时,意为“多长时间以后即将发生某事”;如果主句用过去时,从句也用过去 时,意为“多长时间后发生了某事”。 It won’t be long before he succeeds. He will succeed soon. It was ten years before they met again.They met again ten years later. 被动语态考查要点简述被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式be 过去分词,口语也有用 get / become 过去分词表示。被动语态 的基本用法不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承 受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略) 。 1 使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ①主动变被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to meby my friendon my birthday. I was given an interesting book by my friendon my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变) ;(作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day longby the boss ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。 The children were taken good care of by her. Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构变被动语 态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be 过去分词。 ⑤当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时,被动 语态有两种形式(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。 (B)用 it 作形式主语, 真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如 People say he is a smart boy.\It is said that he is a smart boy.\He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 ②表示状态的谓语动词,如 last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to 等。 ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。 ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有 sell、write、wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ①当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、write,open,clean,cook,keep,cut,fill,blow,measure,lock,run,record,begin,s hut 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。 These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The door won’t lock.门锁不上。 The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ②当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等 意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤在“be 形容词(easy, difficult, light, heavy, fit, good, safe, comfortable, dangerous, pleasant) to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. 另外be to blame受谴责,be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.He hid himself behind the door.他藏在门后。 ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如 The book was sold by a certain bookstore.被动语态 The book is well sold.系表结构 6 get过去分词也可构成被动语态。 get 常同 marry, beat, break, damage, tear, strike, hurt, paint, invite, repair, dress 等动词的过去 分词连用,构成被动语态。 巩固练习 1.(2011天津卷)On the next birthday, Ann married for twenty years. A .is B .has been C. will be D. will have been 2.(2011天津卷)In the last few years thousands of films all over the word. A. have produced B. have been produced C. are producing D. are being produced 3.(2011江西卷)We _____John’s name on the race list yesterday but for his recent injury. A. will put B. will have put C. would put D. would have put 4.(2011北京卷)That must have been a long trip. Yeah, it us a whole week to get there. A. takes B. has taken C. took D. was taking 5.(2011北京卷).Experiments of this kind in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. A. have conducted B. have been conducted C. had conducted D. had been conducted 6.(2011天津卷)I ______ sooner but I didn’t know that they were waiting for me. A. had come B. was coming C. would come D. would have come 7.(2011北京卷)Bob has gone to California. Oh, can you tell me when he A. has left B. left C. is leaving D. would leave 8.(2011四川卷)All visitors to this village _________ with kindness. A. treat B. are treated C. are treating D. had been treated 9.(2011北京卷)Tom in the library every night over the last three months. A. works B. worked C. has been working D. had been working 10.(2011四川卷).What a mistake Yes. I his doing it another way , but without success. A. was suggesting B. will suggest C. would suggest D. had suggested 11.(2011全国 II)If you dont like the drink you ______just leave it and try a different one. A. ordered B. are ordering C. will order D. had ordered 12.(2011陕西卷)His first novel good reviews since it came out last month. A. receives B. is receiving C .will receive D. has received 13.(2011北京卷)Maybe if I science, and not literature then, I would be able to give you more help. A. studied B. would study C. had studied D. was studying 14.(2011辽宁卷)Ill go to the library as soon as I finish what I . A. was doing B. am doing C. have done D. had been doing 15.(2011辽宁卷)By the time Jack returned home from England, his son. from college. A. graduated B. has graduated C. had been D. had graduated 16.(2011湖南卷)----Joan, what ______in your hand -----Look It’s a birthday gift for my grandma. A. had you held B. are you holding C. do you hold D. will you hold 17.(2011江苏卷)------I hear you ____ in a pub .what’s it like ------ Well , it’s very hand work and I’m always tired , but I don’t mind. A. are working B. will work C. were working D. will be working 18.(2011江苏卷)-----Tommy is planning to buy a car. ----I know .By next month , he __enough for a used one. A. saves B .saved C. will save D. will have saved 19.(2011全国新课标卷)Planning so far ahead no sense-.so many things will have changed by next year. A. made B. is making C .makes D. has made 20.(2011全国新课标卷)I wasn’t sure if he was really interested or if he polite. A. was just being B. will just be C .had just been D. would just be 21.(2011全国新课标卷)When Alice came to, she did not know how long she there. A. had been lying B. has been lying C. was lying D. has lain 22.(2011浙江卷)The manager was worried about the press conference his assistant _____in his place but ,luckily ,everything was going on smoothly. A. gave B. gives C. was giving D. had given 23.(2011湖南卷)In 1942 Columbus_______ on the of the Bahama islands, but he mistook it for an island off India. A. lands B. landed C. has landed D. had landed 24.(2011湖南卷)It is the most instructive lecture that I ________since I came to this school. A. attended B. had attended C. am attending D. have attended 25.(2011湖南卷) In the near future, more advances in the robot technology ______ by scientists. A .are making B. are made C. will make D. will be make 26.2011安徽卷 What do you think of store shopping in the future Personally, I think it will exist along with home shopping but _____. A. will never replace B. would never replace C. will never be replaced D. would never be replaced 27.2011山东卷.When I got on the bus, I_____I had left my wallet at home. A. was realizingB. realizedC. have realizedD. would realize 28.2011山东卷She was surprised to find the fridge empty; the child _____ everything A. had been eating B. had eaten C. have eaten D. have been eating 29. 10 上海)Every few years, the coal workers their lungs X-rayed to ensure their health. A. are having B. have C. have had D. had had 30. 10 福建)–Guess what, we’ve got our visas for a short-term visit to the UK this summer. --How nice You a different culture then. A. will be experiencing B. have experienced C. have been experiencing D. will have experienced 31. 10 安徽)----We’ve spent too much money recently. ----well, it isn’t surprising. Our friend and relatives _______around all the time A. are coming B. had come C. were coming D. have been coming 32. 10 江西)Mother wanted to be a good provider, a role she _____since her marriage to father. A. shoulders B shouldered C is shouldering D has been shouldering 33.10 山东)Up to now, the program ________ thousands of children who would otherwise have died. A. would save B. saves C. had saved D. has saved 34. 10 四川)You’ve failed to do what you to and I’m afraid the teacher will blame you. A.will expect B.will be expected C.expected D were expected 35. 10 全国Ⅰ)When you are home , give a call to let me know you ______ safely. A. are arriving B. have arrived C. had arrived D. will arrive 36. 10 全国Ⅰ)The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune ______. A. is made B. would make C. was to be made D. had made 37. 10 全国Ⅱ)Excuse me. I________I was blocking your way. A. didn’t realize B. don’t realize C. haven’t realized D. wasn’t realizing 38. 10 辽宁)I _______ all the cooking for my family, but recently I’ve been too busy to do it. A.will do B.do C.am doing D had done 39. 10 重庆 The palace caught fire three times in the last century, and little of the original building _______now. A. remains B. is remained C. is remaining D. has been remained 40. 10 浙江If you plant watermelon seeds in the spring, you fresh watermelon in the fall. A.eat B.would eat C.have eaten D.will be eating 41. 09 北京 When I talked with my grandma on the phone, she sounded weak, but by the time we ______ up , her voice had been full of life. A. were hanging B. had hung C. hung D. would hang 42. 09 天津 My parents _____ in Hong Kong. They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. A. live B. lived C. were living D. will live 43. 09 江苏 -- Ann is in hospital. -- Oh, really I ______ know. I _______ go and visit her. A. didn’t; am going to B. don’t; would C. don’t; will D. didnt; will 44. 09 全国Ⅰ Edward, you play so well. But I________ you played the piano. A. didn’t know B hadn’t known C. don’t know D. haven’t known 45.09 福建 ---- Why does the Lake smell terrible ----Because large quantities of water___________ . A. have polluted B. is being polluted C. has been polluted D. have been polluted 46. 09 安徽 Daniels family______ their holiday in Huangshan this time next week. A. are enjoying B. are to enjoy C. will enjoy D. will be enjoying 47. 09 辽宁 My parents have promised to come to see me before I _______for Africa. A. have left B. leave C. left D. will leave 48. 09 山东 I was out of town at the time, so I don’t know exactly how it _______ A. was happening B. happened C. happens D. has happened 专题五专题五 1-5DBDCD 6-10 DBBCD 11-15 ADCBD 16-20 BADCA 21-25 ACBDD 26-30 CBBBA 31-35 DDDDB 36-40CABAD 41-45 CADAD 46-48 DBB

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