北京外国语大学02年语言学考研真题

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'北京外国语大学02年语言学考研真题'
北京外国语大学2002年语言学考研真题考试科目:语言学和应用语言学1. Displacement, arbitrariness, cultural transmission, discreteness and duality are sometimes listed as the 6 core feature of human language. Choose 3 out of the 6 and explain with examples what they mean. (12 points )2. Briefly explain what phonetics and phonology are concerned with and what kind of relationships hold between the two. (10 points )3. In deriving new words via a prefix such as mi-, there seems to be some constraint on what is permitted. The words in the first column below are acceptable formation, but the forms in the other columns are not. Work out what the rules might be for making new adjectives with the suffix mis- (18 points ) Misadventure mishappy mismilk Misjudgement mismeal missad Misplace misglad misword Mistrustful misrule miscraz4. Using what you know about Grice’s cooperative principle and its four maxims, analyze the following short exchange. (20 points )同事甲:小张昨晚去哪儿了?同事乙:今天早上我看见一辆白色富康停在小林家门口。5. In each of the following sentence, the second part cancels some information given by the first part. However, this seems to result in quite utterances in group (1) and in very awkward utterance in group (2). Explain why. (20 points )Group (1)a. 老张有三个小孩子,其实还不止三个。b. 我只喜欢黄色和蓝色,不过试试红色也未尝不可。c. 约翰的普通话说得还可以,确切地说是非常棒。Group(2)d. 我特后悔选修了这门课,其实我没有选修这门课。e. 她这次考试又不及格,不过她上次及格了。f. 我在乡下日子过得很苦,说真的我没在乡下呆过。5. Put yourself into the position of an English teacher in China. What are your goals and the goals of the students and the educational system in the teaching and learning of English? When the goals do not converge, hoe do you reconcile the differences between them? (20 points) 参考答案1. Cultural transmission: this refers to the fact that the details of the linguistic system must be learned anew by each speaker. They are not biologically transmitted from generation to generation. Though the capacity for language in human beings has a genetic basis, the particular language a human being learns is a cultural fact, not a genetic one. A human being brought up in isolation simply does not acquire language, as is shown by the rare studies of children brought up by animals without human contact.Discreteness: a distinctive characteristic of language that refers to the fact that language are organized in terms of two levels. At one level, language consists of sequences of segments or units which do not themselves carry meaning (such as the letters “g” , “d” , “o”).However, when these units are combined in certain sequences, they form larger units and carry meaning (such as dog, god).2. By definition, phonetics is the study of speech sounds, including the production of speech, while phonology is the study of the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables. Both phonetics and phonology are concerned with speech. Ph
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北京外国语大学 02 语言学 考研
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