惩罚和社会价值取向对公共物品两难中人际信任和合作行为的影响

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'惩罚和社会价值取向对公共物品两难中人际信任和合作行为的影响'
西北师范大学 硕士学位论文惩罚和社会价值取向对公共物品两难中人际信任和合作行为的影响姓名:陈莉中请学位级别:硕士专业:应用心理学指导教师:王沛2008-05摘要当今虽是和平发展时期,但竞争已日趋激烈。如何在错综复杂的组织环境 中与组织成员合作并求得发展显得尤为重要。公共物品两难问题是社会经济生活 中处于群体中的个体经常面临的问题,如何减少个体的“搭便车”行为,最大程 度地促进人际间的合作已成为组织人事管理的焦点。基于前人的研究,惩罚的存 在常常被认为是促进人际信任和合作的有效手段。然而,本研究采用逆向思维设 计“取消惩罚”的范式,探讨惩罚对人际信任和合作的消极彩响及其机制。研究通过计算机情境模拟实验,采用实证和问卷相结合的方式对惩罚和社 会价值取向对公共物品两难博弈中人际信任和合作行为的作用进行了研究和探 讨。本研究得到以下结论:(1) 惩罚的存在对博弈者在随后的惩罚取消阶段的人际信任水平冇消极影 响:惩罚取消阶段,被试的整体人际信任水平显著低于惩罚存在阶段的人际信任 水平;经历过惩罚的被试的人际信任水平显著低于无惩罚条件被试的相应水平。(2) 惩罚对博弈者合作行为的消极影响在社会价值取向不同的博弈者之间 有显著差异:经历过惩罚的亲社会型被试在惩罚取消阶段的合作程度显著低于惩 罚存在阶段的合作程度;在惩罚取消阶段,经历了惩罚条件的被试的合作程度显 著低于无惩罚条件被试的相应水平。惩罚对个体价值取向的博弈者的合作程度无 显著消极影响。(3) 惩罚对博弈者的条件信任水平、合作行为的外部归因程度以及对他人 的合作动机评价有显著影响。重度惩罚条件下,被试的条件信任水平、对他人合 作行为的外部归因程度和评价他人受外部动机驱使驱向合作的程度显著高于轻 度惩罚条件和无惩罚条件。惩罚显著增加了博弈者对他人受外部动机驱使驱向合 作的信任。(4) 惩罚、社会价值取向、人际信任、合作行为四个变量间存在潜在的结 构关系。其中人际信任充当了惩罚影响亲社会型|■専弈者合作行为的中介变量。关键词:公共物品两难惩罚 人际信任 社会价值取向合作行为AbstractIt is an age of peace and development, but competition is very cruel nowadays. So it is becoming very important for us to know how to cooperate with partners and develop yourself in the complicated situation. Individuals in groups are often confronted with the problem of public goods dilemmas. It is becoming a focus for organization management how to decrease free ride on team membersefforts and successfully increase cooperation. Based on previous researchers, sanctioning systems in social dilemmas are often meant to increase trust in others and to increase cooperation. However, the main point of this paper is to explore the relationship of sanction, trust and cooperation by "removing the sanction" paradigm and a measurement of social value orientation.This paper is organized with both the measures of laboratory experiment and questionnaire methods which examined the effects of a sanction on trust and cooperation in public goods dilemmas. The main conclusions are as following:a) When there is a sanction on defection, trust in others being internally motivated to cooperate is undermined: participants who had experienced the presence of the sanction trusted fellow group members less than participants who had not.b) The sanction makes different effects to cooperation of subjects who are with different social value orientation. The sanction can undermine cooperation when subjects are pro socials: participants who have experienced the presence of the sanction cooperate less than participants who have not. But the sanction has no significant effect on individualists.c) The different extent of sanction makes different effects on conditional trust, external attribution of others' cooperation and interpersonal evaluation of others5 motives to cooperate. A large sanction brings about more trust in others being externally motivated to cooperate than a small sanction. A large sanction induced people to attribute fellow group memberscooperation to a great extent to the sanction than a small sanction. In the large-sanction condition perceived motiv
关 键 词:
惩罚 社会 价值 取向 公共 物品 两难 人际 信任 合作 行为 影响
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